Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Effluents from Three Food Industries within Onitsha in Anambra State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 259-265
Received: Sep. 22, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 30, 2014; Published: Oct. 20, 2014
Views 2685      Downloads 143
Nwosu Udoka Lovelyn, Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Nigeria
Ajiwe Vincent Ishmael Egbulezu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Okoye Patrick-Anthony Chudi, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
This work investigated the heavy metal pollution of effluents from three food industries within Onitsha in Anambra State, Nigeria. The wastewater samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed that the mean levels of all the heavy metals were above the limit allowed by the Nigeria Federal Ministry of Environment in industrial effluent. Concentrations of heavy metals obtained were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Hg in the effluents were in the order of Life0.05) between rainy and dry season. Analysis of variance showed that apart from arsenic, the concentrations of Hg, Fe, Pb, Cr, Cd were not significant (p>0.05) when the effluents were compared to each other. Nevertheless, the pollution index of the heavy metals showed significant pollution by these toxicants.
Food Industries, Heavy Metals, Effluents, Pollution, Assessment
To cite this article
Nwosu Udoka Lovelyn, Ajiwe Vincent Ishmael Egbulezu, Okoye Patrick-Anthony Chudi, Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution of Effluents from Three Food Industries within Onitsha in Anambra State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 259-265. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20140205.15
Ajao, E.A., Acute Toxicity Test of a Textile Mill Waste-Water Effluent and a Detergent Wash with a Hermit Crab Clibinarinus anfrucanus (Aurvillius). NIOMR Tech Paper 21. p.11. 1985.
Begum, A., Amin, M.d.N., Kaneco, S., Ohta, K., Selected elemental composition of the muscle tissue of three species of fish, Tilapia nilotica, Cirrhina mrigala and clarius batrachus, from the fresh water Dhamondi Lake in Bangladeshi. Food Chemistry, 93, 439-443. 2005.
Canli, M., Atli, G., The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species. Environs Ollut. 121, 129-136. 2003.
Censi, P., Spoto, S.E., Saiano, F, Sprovrerri, N., Massola, S., Nardone, G., D. Geronimo, S.I., Punturo, R., Ottonello, D., Heavy metals in coastal water systems. A case study from the Northwestern Gulf of Thailand. Chemosphere, 64, 1167-1176. 2006.
Charles, K.W., Mwegoha, J.S., Riziki, S.S., Heavy metal concentrations in vegetables grown in the vicinity of the closed dump site. International Journal of Environmental Series, 2 (2), 889-895. 2011.
Chinnaka, K., Chojuaciki, A., Gorecka, H., Trace element removal by spirulina sp. from copper smelter and refinery effluents. Hydrometallurgy, 73, 149-153. 2004.
Chukwu, D., Impact of food processing effluents on the receiving streams. Environmental Research Journal, 2 (5), 222-225. 2008.
FEPA., Guidelines and standards for Environmental Pollution control in Nigeria, Federal Environmental Agency (FEPA), Lagos, Nigeria p. 238. 1991.
Fernades, C., Fontainhas-Fernandes, A., Cabral, D., Salgado, M.A., Heavy metals in water, sediment, and tissues of liza saliens from Es moriz-paramos lagoon, Portugal. Envron. Monit. Assess, 136, 267-275. 2008.
Kolo, B., Dibal, J.M., Ndakaw, I.I., Elemental Analysis of Tap and Borehole waters in Maiduguri, Semi Arid Region, Nigeria. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(2), 26-29. 2009.
Kolodynska, D., The effects of the Novel complexity agent in removal of heavy metal ions from waters and wastewaters. chem. Engine. J., 165, 535-845. 2010.
Ladipo, M.K., and Dohorty, V.F., Heavy metal level in vegetables from selected markets in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(1), 018-021. 2011.
Najafia, M., Rostamian, R., Rafati, A.A., Chemically modified silica gel with throl group as an absorbent for retention of some toxic soft metal ions from water and industrial effluent. Chem. Eng. J., 168, 426-432. 2011.
Odo, R. and Kolawole, S., Assessment of trace heavy metal contamination of some selected vegetables irrigated with water from Benue River within Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (5), 590-601. 2011.
Oguzie, F.A. and Okhagbuzo, G., Concentrations of heavy metals in effluent discharges down stream Ikpoba River in Benin City, Nigeria. African J. of Biotechnology, 9(3), 319-325. 2010.
Oguzie, F.A., Contribution of Industrial Effluents to the Heavy Metal loads of the Lower Ikpoba River in Benin City, Nigeria. Africa J. Appl.zool., 2, 60-63. 1999.
Ozmen, H., Kulahci, F., Cukorovali, A., Dogru, M.,. Concentration of heavy metal and radio-activity in surface water and sediment of Hazar lake (Elazig, Turkey), Chemosphere, 55; 401-408. 2004.
Ozturk, M., Ozozen, G., Minareci., O., Minareci, E., Determination of heavy metals in fishes, water and sediment from the Demirkopru Dam Lake (Turkey). Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 2 (3), 99-104. 2008.
Peter, C.H. and Micheal, E.H., Marine Biology, 5th ed. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. New York. Pp. 400-401. 2005.
Pote, J., Haller, L., Loizeau, J.L., Bravo, A.G., Sastre, V., W. Idi, W., Effect of a Sewage treatment plant outlet pipe extension on the distribution of contaminants in the sediments of the Bay of Vidy, Lake Geneva, Switzerland Bioresource Technol., 99, 7122-7131. 2008.
Praveena, S.M., Radojevic, M., Abdullah, M.H., Aris, A., Application of sediment quality guidelines in the assessment of mangrove surface sediment in Mengkabong lagoon, Sabah, Malaysia. Iran. J. Environ. Health, Sci. Eng., 5 (1), 35-42. 2008.
Ray M., Accumulation of heavy metals in plants grown in Industrial areas. Indian Biologists, XXII (2), 33-38. 1990.
Storelli, M.M., Storelli, A., D’ddabbo, R., Marano, C., Bruno, R., Marcotrigiano, G.O., Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) from the eastern Mediterranean sea: overview and evaluation. Environ. Pollut, 135, 163-170. 2005.
Sunda, N.G. and Huntsmamn, S.A., Process regulating cellular metal accumulation and physiological effects, phytoplankton as model systems. Science of the total Environ, 6, 165-181. 1998.
Underwood, L.S., Long Term Effects of childhood exposure to lead at low dose. An eleven years follow-up Report. New England J. of Medicine, 322, 83-88. 2002.
Vasuderon, D.M. and Streekumeri, S., Biochemical Aspects of Environmental Pollution. Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical students, 2nd ed. Jay Pee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. New Delhi, India pp. 467-485. 2000.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186