Distribution of Aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) in Coastal Sediment from the Ngoua River (Douala, Cameroon)
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 272-278
Received: Oct. 10, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 29, 2014;
Published: Nov. 10, 2014
Views 2993 Downloads 186
Jessie Ekoka Christelle Solange, Departement of Applied Chemistry and Environment Management, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Ngassoum Martin Benoit, Departement of Applied Chemistry and Environment Management, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Ze Bilo’o Philemon, Departement of Applied Chemistry and Environment Management, National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences (ENSAI), University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon; Laboratory of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, Cameroon
This paper reports the identification and quantification of 15EPA-PAHs in the sediments samples collected in Ngoua River, Douala, Cameroon. PAH and n-alkanes were separated by using a chromatographic column, identified and quantified by using Gas Chromatography (GC/FID). The total concentration ranged from 140.42 µg/g to 229.47 µg/g dry matters during the rainy season and from 48.89 µg/g to 333.49 µg/g dry matters during the dry season. All samples showed the predominance of high Molecular Weight (HMW) PAHs due to industrial activities. At the upstream, the concentrations of PAHs were systematically lower than those found downstream indicating an influence of Nettoycam Company in the local pollution by PAHs. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed remarkable differences of characteristics of samples collected upstream and downstream of Nettoycam Company, samples location and also of samples from rainy and dry seasons.
Jessie Ekoka Christelle Solange,
Ngassoum Martin Benoit,
Ze Bilo’o Philemon,
Distribution of Aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) in Coastal Sediment from the Ngoua River (Douala, Cameroon), International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 272-278.
Arias, A., Vazquez-Botello, A., Tombesi, N., Ponce-Vélez, G., Freije, H., Marcovecchio, J., 2010. Presence, distribution, and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 160, 301-314
Asia, L., Mazouz, S., Guiliano, M., Doumenq, P., Mille, G., 2009.’Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in surface sediment from Marseille Bay (France)’, Baseline, Marine Pollution Bulletin 58, 424 – 455
BAOK Gisèle, (2007) : Pollution des eaux de rivière et les impacts biologiques sur les populations riveraines: cas de la rivière Ngoua dans la zone industrielle de douala bassa (Cameroun), 2007.
Chen, S.J., Luo, X.J., Mai, B.X., Sheng, G.Y., Fu, J.M., Zeng, E., 2006. ‘Distribution and mass inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the Northern South China Sea’ Environmental Science and Technology 40, 709–714
Commendatore M.G., Esteves J.L, Colombo J.C., (2000, ‘Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediments of Patagonia, Argentina: Levels and Probable Sources’ Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40 : 989-998 pp
Commendatore, M.G., Esteves, J.L., 2007, ‘An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of Patagonia, Argentina’ Environmental Management 40, 814-821.
Darilmaz, E., Kucuksezgin, F., 2007 ‘Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in surficial sediments from the eastern Aegean Sea (Izmir Bay)’ Baseline Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 1813 – 1838.
Doong, R., Lin, Y.T., 2004. ‘Characterization and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminations in surface sediment and water from Gao-ping River, Taiwan’ Water Research 38, 1733–1744.
Dzalla Ngangue G., (2002): Utilization of soil and dynamique couverture of mangrove in wourri estuary. (Littoral-Cameroon), Master of geographie, 68 p.
Gao, X., Chen, S., 2008. ‘Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons’ Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 80, 95-102.
Guo, W., He, M.C., Yang, Z.F., Lin, C.Y., Quan, X.C., Wang, H.Z., 2007. ‘Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China’ Chemosphere 68, 93–104.
Hellou, J., Steller, S., Zitko, V., Leonard, J., King, T., Milligan, T.G., Yeats, R., 2002. ‘Distribution of PACs in surficial sediments and bioavailability to mussels, Mytilus edulis of Halifax Harbour’ Marine Environmental Research 53, 357- 379.
Khairy, M., Kolba, M., Mostafa, A., EL-Fikyb, A., Bahadira, M., 2009 ‘Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed basin affected by human activities (Abu Qir Bay, Egypt)’ Journal of Hazardous Materials 170, 389 – 397.
Luo, X., Chen, S., Mai, B., Yang, Q., Sheng, G., Fu, J., 2006 ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China’ Environmental Pollution 139, 9 - 20.
Massara Paletto, V., Commendatore, M.G., Esteves, J.L., 2008. ‘Hydrocarbon levels in sediments and bivalve mollusks from Bahía Nueva (Patagonia, Argentina): an assessment of probable origin and bioaccumulation factors’ Baseline/Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 2082-2105.
Mille, G., Asia, L., Guiliano, M., Malleret, L., Doumenq, P., 2007. ‘Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Fos area, France)’ Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 566-575.
Mostafa, A., Wade, T., Sweet, S., Al-Alimi, A., Barakat, A., 2009,‘Distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen’ Journal of Marine Systems 78, 1-8.
Qiu, Y., Zhang, G., Liu, G., Guo, L., Li, X., Wai, O., 2009, ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons (PAHs) in the water column and sediment core of Deep Bay, South China’ Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83, 60 – 66.
Rharrassi Filali K., (2008), ‘Comporment and caracterization of organic matter in the metalique element traces (Cu, Ni, Pb) in the industrial aquifer of Douala-Bassa (Cameroun)’.University of Dschang.
Tolosa, I., Mesa-Albernas, M., Alonso-Hernandez, C., 2009. ‘Inputs and sources of hydrocarbons in sediments from Cienfuegos bay, Cuba’ Marine Pollution Bulletin 58, 1624-1634.
Volkman, J., Holdsworth, D., Neill, G., Bavor, H., 1992. ‘Identification of natural, anthropogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments’,The Science of the Total Environment 112, 203-219.
Yan, W., Chi, J., Wang, Z., Huang, W., Zhang, G., 2009. ‘Spatial and temporal distri-bution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Daya Bay, South China’ Environmental Pollution 157, 1823 – 1830.
Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Cretney, W.J., Fowler, B.R., McLaughlin, F.A., 1993. ‘Alkane, terpene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Mackenzie River and Mackenzie shelf: riverine contributions to Beaufort Sea coastal sediment’ Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57, 3041- 3061.
N.Y.M.J. Omar, M.R. Abas, K.A. Ketuly and N. Mohd-Tahir, “Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM-10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,” Atmospheric Environment 36: 247-254,2002.
L. Chrysikou, P. Gemenetzis, A. Kouras, E. Manoli, E.Terzi and C. Samara, “Distribution of persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in soil and vegetation following a large scale landfill fire in northern Greece,” Environment International 34: 210 – 225, 2008.
Simoneit B.R.T. 1978. The organic chemistry of marine sediments. In: Riley, J.P. and Chester, R. (eds), Chemical oceanography, Vol. 7, 2nd edition, Academic Press, New York. pp. 233-311.
Simoneit B.R.T., Sheng G., Chen X., Fu J., Zhang H. and Xu Y. 1991. Molecular marker study of extractable organic matter in aerosols from the urban areas of China. Atmospheric Environment, 25A,2111-2129.
Zhu Y., Liu H., Cheng H., Xi Z., Liu X. and Xu X. 2005. The distribution and source apportionment of aliphatic hydrocarbons in soils from the outskirts of Beijing. Organic Geochemistry. 36, 475-483.
Oyo-lta O.E., Ekpo B.O., Oros D. R. and Simoneit B.R.T. 2010. Distribution and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons and ketones in surface sediments from the Cross River estuary, S.E. Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 5(1): 13-24.