A Precise Methodology Integrates Low-Cost GPS Data and GIS for Monitoring Groundwater Quality Parameters in Majmaah Region, KSA
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 279-288
Received: Oct. 25, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 7, 2014;
Published: Nov. 20, 2014
Views 2409 Downloads 150
Sameh S. Ahmed, Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, 71516, Egypt ; Civil Engineering Department, Matarria Engineering College, Helwan University, Egypt
Mahmoud T. Azmi, Civil Engineering Department, Matarria Engineering College, Helwan University, Egypt; In secondment: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, KSA
GIS/GPS mapping technology provides a very cost effective method of meeting the guidelines and calculating the total information required for decision makers. This paper aims to integrate Geographic Information System (GIS) and data acquired using low-cost GPS in one system and develop a precise methodology that is reliable for environmental studies at Majmaah region. The research focuses on monitoring and mapping the groundwater quality parameters at the study area. Portable GPS instrument with reasonable accuracy was used to measure the coordinates of non-defined water wells in the form of the latitudes and longitudes. A methodology for using these data to locate those positions accurately and merge them in GIS system was developed. The system was developed mainly for environmental studies (characterization of groundwater quality parameters) using a satellite image and the calculated GPS data aiming to produce a dynamic system that is capable of map the changes in any groundwater parameter on different times. However, other uses could be: defining the contaminated soil zones, and the same for flooding areas, as GIS will help in selecting the most appropriate locations to dig new wells, construct dams or produce sensitivity environmental maps for the study area. The resulted contour environmental maps can be helpful to illustrate a clear picture and quantities of needed areas for preservation. The system can be updated and modified easily and remains useful and helpful for supporting the decision making to identify, monitor and plan other environmental studies at the region.
Sameh S. Ahmed,
Mahmoud T. Azmi,
A Precise Methodology Integrates Low-Cost GPS Data and GIS for Monitoring Groundwater Quality Parameters in Majmaah Region, KSA, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 279-288.
Shree, S. Nath; John, P., Bolte, Lindsay G.; Ross, and Jose Aguilar-Manjarrez (2000). ”Applications of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Spatial Decision Support in Aquaculture”, Original Research Article, Aquaculture Engineering, Vol. 23, Issues 1–3, September 2000, 233-278.
Babiker, Insaf S.; Mohamed A.A. Mohamed; Tetsuya Hiyama and Kikuo Kato (2005). “A GIS -based DRASTIC model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan”, Original Research Article. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 345, Issues 1–3, 1 June 2005, 127-140.
Tait, N.G.; D.N Lerner; J.W.N Smith and S.A Leharne (2004). “Prioritization of abstraction boreholes at risk from chlorinated solvent contamination on the UK Permo-Triassic Sandstone aquifer using a GIS”, Original Research Article Science of The Total Environment, Volume 319, Issues 1–3, 5 February 2004, 77-98.
Iain, R. Lake; Andrew, A. Lovett; Kevin, M. Hiscock; Mark, Betson; Aidan, Foley; Gisela, S.; Sarah, Evers and Steve, Fletcher (2003). “Evaluating Factors Influencing Groundwater Vulnerability to Nitrate Pollution: Developing the Potential of GIS”, Original Research Article; Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 68, Issue 3, July 2003, 315-328.
Al-Adamat, R.A.N.; I.D.L. Foster; and S.M.J. Baban (2003). “Groundwater Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Basaltic Aquifer of the Azraq Basin of Jordan using GIS, Remote Sensing and DRASTIC”, Original Research. Article Applied Geography, Volume 23, Issue 4, October 2003, 303-324.
Firdes, Yenilmez; Nazan Kuter; Mustafa Kemal Emil and Aysegul Aksoy (2011) “Evaluation of Pollution Levels at an Abandoned Coal Mine Site in Turkey with the Aid of GIS”, Original Research Article, International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 86, Issue 1, 1 April 2011,12-19.
NRSA, (2001).“Land Use/over Assessment Study of ACC Cement Plant at Wadi, Gulbarga District, Karnataka using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques”, p. 24.
Harrington, Andrew (1999). “GPS/GIS Integration: GPS Can Play a Major Role in GIS Data Maintenance?”, GeoWorld, Danielson, Todd (ed.), Vol.12 No.10, Arlington Heights: Adams Business Media, October 1999.
Harrington, Andrew (2000). “GPS/GIS Integration: Consider the Differences among GPS Integration Technologies?”, GeoWorld, Danielson, Todd (ed.), Vol.13 No.2, Arlington Heights: Adams Business Media, February 2000.
Adrados, C.; Girard, I.; Gendner, J. and Janeau, G. (2002). “Global Positioning System (GPS) Location Accuracy due to Selective Availability Removal”, C. R. Biologies, 325,165-170.
Azmi M. Th. (2004) “Comparative Study Between Ordinary Systems and GPS System in Height Difference Accuracy”, The Bulletin of the Faculty of Engineering, Al–Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Vol. (26) No.(2).
ARC/GIS (Ver. 10.2), (2013): Software, Esri.
ERDAS IMAGAIN (2014): Software Version 14.00.0000, Build 350 @ 1990-2013, Intergraph Corporation.
Portable GPS instrument, WGS84. Remondi, B. (1995). ”Performing Centimeter Accuracy Relative Surveys in seconds Using GPS Carrier Phase”, Proceeding 1st International Symposium on Precise Positioning with GPS, MD, 789- 797.
Brown, R. A. and Evans, A.G. (2010). ”GPS Pointing System Performance”, Proceeding of ION, GPS-90, Institute of Navigation, Washington D.C., 645-654.
Canon, M. E.; Mclella, J. F., and Schlappe, J. B., (1996). “High Accuracy Static GPS Surveys with Low Cost Receiver”, CISM Journal ACSGC, Vol. 26, No. 1, 9-16.
STATGRAPHICS plus, (1996): Statistical Graphics Corp.
Mohammed Al-Saud et.al, (2011), “Challenges for an Integrated Groundwater Management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia” International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments 1(1): 65-70, 2011
WHO, World Health Organization, (2004),”Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality”, Vol. 1, 3rd Edition, Geneva, ISBN: 9241546387.
EPA, (2012), “Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories”, 2012 Edition, EPA 822-s-12-001, Office of water, U.S Environmental Protection Agency. April 2012.