Impacts of Untreated Sewage Discharge on Water Quality of Middle Manyame River: A Case of Chinhoyi Town, Zimbabwe
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 133-138
Received: Mar. 27, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 15, 2015;
Published: Apr. 27, 2015
Views 9165 Downloads 267
Muisa Norah, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Environmental Science and Technology Department, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
Zingundu Shumirai, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Environmental Science and Technology Department, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
Mangori Lynda Zelma, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Environmental Science and Technology Department, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
Mupfiga Upenyu, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Environmental Science and Technology Department, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
Disposal of untreated sewage into surface waters is common in most developing countries. Any physico-chemical, or biological condition that prevents the designated uses of a water body represents poor water quality. This study was carried out on Middle Manyame River, a major source of potable water in Chinhoyi town. The study sought to ascertain the impacts of discharging untreated sewage on the water quality of Middle Manyame River. The following parameters were determined using APHA standard methods; nitrates, phosphates, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Sampling was done in November 2013, March 2014, and May 2014. All the parameters, except for pH and temperature, exceeded acceptable water quality standards for the sites downstream of the sewage discharge points. This indicated that the improper sewage discharge was the major contributor to poor water quality, among other activities such as agricultural runoff. It was concluded from the study that sewage effluent from the Municipality of Chinhoyi sewage works was mainly responsible for pollution along Middle Manyame River. This pollution has also put the river at risk of eutrophication. It was recommended that there should be rehabilitation and upgrading of sewage systems in Chinhoyi.
Mangori Lynda Zelma,
Impacts of Untreated Sewage Discharge on Water Quality of Middle Manyame River: A Case of Chinhoyi Town, Zimbabwe, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 133-138.
Kuang, Q; Bi. Y; Xia. Y and Hu. Z (2004). Phytoplankton community and algal growth potential in Taipinhu reservoir, Anhui Province, China, Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 9(2): 119–124.
Akpor O. B. and Muchie, M. (2011) Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality. Afr J. Biotechnology 10(13): 2379-2387.
Shirajavu H.P (2011), Impact Assessment of Sewage Discharge on Underground Water Qualities around Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (Mysore City, India). Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ. 1(2):28-35.
Chimanga J.R, (2010) Impact of industrial effluent from an iron and steel company on the physicochemical quality of Kwekwe River water in Zimbabwe .International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (2): 129-140.
Nhapi I and Tirivarombo S (2004). Sewage discharges and nutrient levels in Marimba River, Zimbabwe. WaterSA, 30 (1):107-113.
Mudozori G and Kusangaya S (2011). Analysis of the challenges posed by water pollution in providing standard water quality: The case of Chinhoyi urban, Zimbabwe(Unpublished). (http://www.waternetonline.ihe.nl/downloads/uploads/symposium2005/theme2/Kusangaya%201.pdf)
Welch E.B and Lindell T (1980). Ecological effects of waste water. Cambridge University Press, London, United Kingdom.
Eynard F, Mez K, Walther J.L (2000). Risk of cyanobacterial toxins in Riga waters (LATVIA). Water Res. 30(11): 2979-2988.
Mbewele L (2006). Microbial phosphorus removal in wastewater stabilization pond. A Licentiate Thesis from the School Biotechnology: A Royal Institute of Technology.
Amir H.M, Ali R.M, Farham K (2004). Nitrogen removal from wastewater in a continuous flow sequencing batch reactor. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7(11): 1880-1883.
Gohil, M.B., 2000, Land treatment of wastewater. New Age International (p) Ltd, Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Wuta M, Muisa N, Misi S. and Nyamangara J (2007). The impacts of Sewage Effluent on the Physico-chemical quality of Chinyika River (Unpublished Bsc Thesis) Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, University of Zimbabwe.
Bere T, (2005) The impact of Sewage Effluent and Natural Self-Purification in the Upper Chinyika river below Hatcliffe Sewage Works, MSc thesis (Unpublished), University of Zimbabwe.
Compendium of Statistics 2012, Zimbabwe.
Tendaupenyu P, 2012, Nutrient Limitation of Phytoplankton in Five Impoundments on Manyame River, Zimbabwe, MSc Thesis (Unpublished) University of Zimbabwe.
American Public Health Association (APHA). 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition. APHA, Washington, D.C.
Zimbabwe National Water Authority (cited as ZINWA). (2000). Operational Guidelines for the Control of Water Pollution in Zimbabwe, 2000. Harare, Zimbabwe: Government Publishers.
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 1995. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 3rd ed. Tata McGrawHill Co. Ltd., New York, USA.
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), 1996. South African Water Quality Guidelines, Aquatic Ecosystems, vol. 7. Holmes, S. (Ed.), CSIR. Environmental Services, Pretoria 0001, Republic of South Africa.
Adeyemo O.K, Adedokun O.A, Yusuf R.K and Adeleye E.A ; 2008; Seasonal Changes in Physico-Chemical Parameter and nutrient load of River Sediments in Ibadan city Nigeria; Global NEST Journal.
Masere, T.P., Munodawafa, A. and Chitata, T. (2012), “Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River”, International Journal of Development and Sustainability, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 754-765.
Walk, M.F. (2004) Chloride. High pH. Nitrogen. Phosphorus. Massachusetts Water Watch Partnership (2004). Fact Sheets.
WHO (2006). Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greater, vol. 3. World Health Organisation Press.
CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment), 2003. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life: Aluminium.