International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2015, Pages: 218-220
Received: Jul. 9, 2015;
Accepted: Jul. 27, 2015;
Published: Aug. 5, 2015
Views 6694 Downloads 227
Mohamed A. Ghorab, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Central Laboratories Unit (CLU), Alexandria, Egypt
Mohamed S. Khalil, Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory (CAPL), El-Sabaheya, Alexandria, Egypt
For many years organophosphate pesticides considered the main option for a lot of people in many countries to manage different pests. It's more than 70 years now and OPs still use with certain purposes in gardens, fields and greenhouses as crop protection agents, or even at houses as public health agents. Thus, year after year and with the repeating usage of organophosphate agents many problems were appeared as a result to excessive use of pesticides. The adverse effects of pesticides usage represented in the effects on human health, environment, pesticides residue in crops and soil & water contaminated by these pesticides. Therefore, it was necessary to throw a light on the risks that generated by irresponsible usage of organophosphate pesticides.
Mohamed A. Ghorab,
Mohamed S. Khalil,
Toxicological Effects of Organophosphates Pesticides, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 218-220.
Alavanja, M. C. (2009). Introduction: pesticides use and exposure extensive worldwide. Rev Environ Health. 24(4):303-309.
Aprea, C.; Strambi, M.; Novelli, M.T.; Lunghini, L. and Bozzi, N. (2000). Biologic monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in 195 Italian children. Environ Health Perspect. 108 (6): 521-5.
Barr, D.B.; Bravo, R.; Weerasekera, G.; Caltabiano, L.M.; Whitehead, R.D. J.; Olsson, A.O.; Caudill, S.P.; Schober, S.E.; Pirkle, J.L. and Sampson, E.J. (2004). Concentrations of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in the U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect, 112 (2):186-200.
Brown, L.M.; Blair, A.; Gibson, R.; Everett, G.D.; Cantor, K.P.; Schuman, L.M.; Burmeister, L.F.; Van Lier, S.F. and Dick, F. (1990). Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Res, 50 (20): 6585-91.
Curl, C.L.; Fenske, R.A. and Elgethun, K. (2003). Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environ Health Perspe, 111 (3): 377-82.
Ghosh P.K.; Philip L. (2006). Environmental Significance Of Atrazine In Aqueous Systems And Its Removal By Biological Processes: An Overview. Global NEST J, 8(2): 159-178.
Gupta, R.C. (2006). Toxicology of Organophosphate & Carbamate Compounds. Chapter 26, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 371-380.
Gupta, S.; Stravitz, R.T.; Dent, P. and Hylemon, P.B. (2001) Down-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression by bile acids in primary rat hepatocytes is mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. J Biol Chem, 276 (19): 15816-22.
Li, X., Jiang, J., Gu, L., Ali, S., He, J., Li, S. (2008). Diversity of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria isolated from chlorpyrifos-contaminated samples. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 62, 331e335
McDaniel K. L.; Moser V. C. (2004). Differential profiles of cholinesterase inhibition and neurobehavioral effects in rats exposed to fenamiphos or profenofos, Neurotoxicol Teratol, 26: 407–415.
Routt R. J., Roberts J. R. (1999). Recognition and management of pesticide poisonings.EPA, Washington DC., p. 223.
Sameeh A. M. (2004). Pesticide exposure-Egyptian scene. Toxicol, 198: 91–115.
Waddell, B.L.; Zahm, S.H.; Baris, D.; Weisenburger, D.D.; Holmes, F.; Burmeister, L.F.; Cantor, K.P. & Blair, A. (2001) Agricultural use of organophosphate pesticides and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male farmers (United States). Cancer Causes Cont, 12 (6): 509-517.
WHO (1986). Environmental Health Criteria 63. Organophosphorous Insecticides : a general introduction. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Zakov K. (1983). Immunotoxicology of pesticides. In: Kalyanova F, Tarkowski S, eds. Toxicology of Pesticides Copenhagen. World Health Organization, Geneva; 75–88 (Health Aspects of Chemical Safety, Interim Document No. 9).