Pre-impoundment Macroinvertebrate Composition of Elemi River, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 425-434
Received: Nov. 22, 2015;
Accepted: Dec. 3, 2015;
Published: Jan. 4, 2016
Views 4395 Downloads 120
Edward J. B., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Adewumi A. A., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Idowu E. O., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Oso J. A., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Adeoba E. A., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Olofintoye L. K., Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Benthic organisms are generally considered to be good indicators of environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystem. The present study was undertaken to study the pre-impoundment composition, abundance, distribution and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna of Elemi River, Ado-Ekiti, while using these organisms as water-quality bioindicators. Physicochemical, metals and benthic samples were collected biweekly at four stations between April –July, 2015, using standard methods of APHA (1998). The mean values of triplicate samples of physicochemical parameters include pH (6.82±0.06), temperature (27.05°C ± 4.35), TDS (0.07 ± 0.0001), DO (11.15 ± 1.88), BOD (5.8 ± 0.71), NO3 (57.08 ± 6.48), SO4 (76.14 ± 10.4). For the metals, the mean values are Pb (0.01 ± 0.0001), Cr (0.21 ± 0.04), Cu (0.07 ± 0.003), Mg (152.68 ± 79.5), Zn (2.05 ± 5.19), and Fe (1.98 ± 0.21). When compared with the WHO permissible standards for freshwaters, DO, BOD and NO3 had mean values that were significantly higher than the WHO standards for drinking and agricultural purposes. Also, metals including Cr, Mg, Zn, and Fe had mean values significantly higher than the WHO standards. Seven families of macroinvertebrates representing five orders of Mollusca (66.6%), Coleoptera (14.6%), Plecoptera (12.7%), Hemiptera (4.3%), and Tricoptera (1.8%) were recorded during the period of study. Of the total collected macroinvertebrates, insects comprised only 33.4%, but they are more diverse compared with the gastropods which made up the highest (66.6%) percentage, but are less diverse. Their high abundance coupled with high concentrations of some physicochemical parameters indicates high impact of anthropogenic activities and may result into high organic pollution of the river. Elemi River thus experiences degradation as it flows downstream and benthic macroinvertebrates can serve as a good biological indicator to monitor the river health.
Edward J. B.,
Adewumi A. A.,
Idowu E. O.,
Oso J. A.,
Adeoba E. A.,
Olofintoye L. K.,
Pre-impoundment Macroinvertebrate Composition of Elemi River, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 425-434.
Olukanni, D.O. and Salami, A.W. (2012). Assessment of Impact of Hydropower Dams Reservoir Outflow on the Downstream River Flood Regime – Nigeria’s Experience. Hydropower- Practice and Application, 36: 61-82.
Elliot H. A., Patrick K. Ofori-Danson & James S. (2015) Ecological impact of river impoundment on zooplankton, Zoology and Ecology, 25: 135-142, DOI:10.1080/21658005.2015.1012322.
Anyona, D. N., Abuom, P. O., Dida, G. O., Gelder, F. B., Onyuka, J. O., Matano, Ally-Said, Kanangire C. K., Bosire, E. K., Oindo, B. O., Owuor, P. O. and Ofulla, A. V. O. (2014). Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on Physicochemical Parameters and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Mara River Tributaries, Kenya. Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, 2(5) 098-109.
Arazu, V. N., Ogbeibu, A. E., Okeke, P. A. (2015). Pre-Dredging Physico-chemical Status of the River Niger at Onitsha Stretch, Anambra State, Nigeria. Environment and Ecology Research 3(1): 15-23, DOI: 10.13189/eer.2015.030103.
Andem B. A., Kalu A. O., Victor O. E., Paul B. E. (2013). Ecological Impact Assessment and Limnological Characterization in the Intertidal Region of Calabar River Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicator Organisms. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 1(2):8-14.
Rosenberg D.M. and II Resh, V. H (1998). Fresh water biomonitoring and benthic macro invertebrates. New York, Chapman and Hall. 488pp.
Reynoldson, T. B., Norris, R. H., Resh, V. H., Day K. E. &. Rosenberg, D. M. (1997). The reference condition: a comparison of multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess water-quality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal North American Benthological Society 16(4): 833-852.
Rosenberg D. M. (1998). A national aquatic ecosystem health program for Canada, we should go against the flow. Bull. Ent. Soc. Canada 30: 144–152.
Barbour, M. T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B. D. and Stribling, J. B. (1999). Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water; Washington, D. C. http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/rbp/ (accessed September 2015).
Hellawell J. M. (1986). Biological indicators of freshwater pollution and environmental management: pollution monitoring series. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York.
Wright J. F. (1997). An introduction to RIVPACS. In: Assessing the biological quality of freshwaters: RIVPACS and other techniques. (J. F. Wright, D.W. Sutcliffe and M. T. Furse, eds), pp. 1–24. Freshwater Biological Association, UK.
APHA, AWWA, WEF, (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D., (eds) 18th Edition.
Yoloye V. L. (1988). Basic Invertebrate Zoology, Ilorin University Press, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Schneider, W. (1990). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome, FAO.
Zimmerman, M. C. (1993). The Use of the Biotic Index as an Indication of Water Quality. Pages 85-98, in: Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 5 (C. A. Goldman, P. L. Hauta, M. A. O’Donnell, S. E. Andrews, and R. van der Heiden, Editors).Proceedings of the 5th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE), 115 pages.
Bouchard, R. W., Jr. (2004). Guide to aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Upper Midwest. Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 208 pp.
Freshwater Biological Association (2012). Guide to British Freshwater Macroinvertebrates for Biotic Assessment. Scientific Publication 67. The Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK.
Edokpayi C. A., J. C. Okenyi, A. E. Ogbeibu and E. C. Osimen, (2000). The Effects of Human Activities on the Macro – invertebrates of Ibiekuma Stream, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Bio Sci. Res. Commun. 12: 79-87.
Ogbeibu A. E (2001). Distribution and diversity of dipterans in a temporary pond in okomu forest Reservoir, southern Nigeria. Journal of Aquatic science. 16: 43-52.
Edward J. B. and A. A. A. Ugwumba (2011). Macro – invertebrates Fauna of a Tropical Southern Reservoir, Ekiti State, Nigeria. J. Biol. Sci. 4(1): 30-40.
Adakole J. A. And Annune, P. A. (2003). Benthic macro – invertebrates as an indicator of environmental quality of an urban stream Zaria, North-Nigeria, Journal of aquatic science 18:85-92.
Pennak W. P. (1978). Freshwater invertebrates of the United States Ronald, Oxford. 803pp.
Miserendino, M. L. and Pizzolon, L. A. (2003).Distribution of macro - invertebrate assemblages in the Azul Quemquemtreu river basin, Patagonia, Argentina New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 37(3), 525-539.
WHO (2008): Guidelines for drinking water quality. Second addendum to third edition. Volume 1 Recommendations. Geneva 2008, 103pp.
FEPA (1991): Guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control in Nigeria. Federal Environmental protection Agency, pp51-100.
Akinbile C. O. (2006). Hawked water quality and its health implications in Akure, Nigeria. Botswana J. of technology, 15(2): 70-75.
Edward J. B. and A. A. A. Ugwumba (2010). Physico-Chemical Parameters and Plankton Community of Egbe Reservoir, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Vol. 5(5): 356-367.
Ogedengbe, K. and C. O. Akinbile. 2004. Impact of Industrial Pollutants on Quality of Ground and Surface waters at Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria. Nigerian Jour. of Technological Dev., 4(2): 139-144.
Shyamala, R., Shanti, M., and P. Lalitha. 2008. Physicochemical Analysis of Bore-well Water Samples of Telungupalayam Area in Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu, India. E-Jour. of Chem. 5(4): 924-929.