Distribution and Assessment of Heavy Metal Levels Using Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index in Lake Edku Sediments, Egypt
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 1-8
Received: Jan. 5, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 16, 2017; Published: Feb. 16, 2017
Views 3686      Downloads 139
Authors
Yousef Ahmed Annaas Waheshi, High Institute in Jerpoly Area, Tripoli, Libya
Maie Ibrahim El-Gammal, Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Mahmoud Salem Ibrahim, Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Mohamed Abdel Aziz Okbah, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, Kayet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine and assessment of some heavy metals content (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and Pb) in the sediment of Lake Edku. Surface sediment samples were collected in September (summer) 2016. The metals content in the Lake sediments decreased in the order of Fe > Mn >Cr >Co >Zn > Cu >Ni= Pb. The range and average ±SD concentrations (µgg-1) of the investigated heavy metals were 30275-43312 (38822±4312) for Fe; 781.8-3432 (1923.6±855) for Mn; 53.8-107 (82.5 ± 18) for Zn; 55.2-91.5(72.3 ± 13) for Cu;87.3-158.8(113.1 ± 24) for Cr; 23.0-63.3(45.0 ± 13.0) for Ni; 81.5-117.8(98.9±11.0) for Co and 32.9 – 55.2 (44.6 ± 8.0) for Pb. The enrichment factor of the study area (EF mean values) have the order of EFCo > EFMn >EFPb > EFCu >EFCr >EFZn >EFNi. According to the geoaccumulation index (Igeo classification), the study area may be practically unpolluted with Fe, Zn, Ni and Cr (Igeo ranged from -2.15 to -0.41) along the study area. On the other hand, the Igeo of Co ranged from moderately to strongly pollutedarea. In addition, a lower degree of pollution was found in the sediments by the other heavy metals; Pb and Cu (unpolluted to moderate). The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated that station IX was characterized by low level of PLI with value of 1.25 while the other stations (ranged from 1.50 to 1.67).
Keywords
Sediment, Heavy Metals, Lake Edku, Enrichment Factor
To cite this article
Yousef Ahmed Annaas Waheshi, Maie Ibrahim El-Gammal, Mahmoud Salem Ibrahim, Mohamed Abdel Aziz Okbah, Distribution and Assessment of Heavy Metal Levels Using Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index in Lake Edku Sediments, Egypt, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20170501.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Okbah M. A.; El-Gohary, S. El. (2002). Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lake Edku Water, Egypt. Medit. Mar. Sci., 3/2, 27-39.
[2]
Nessim, R. B.; EL-Deek, M. S. (1995). The influence of Land- Based sources on the nutrients level in Abu- Qir. Bay. Journal of Bull. High Institute of public Health, Egypt. 25 (1): 209-220.
[3]
Soliman, A. H. (1983). Quantitative and qualitative studies of the plankton of Lake Edku in relation to the local environmental conditions and to Fish food. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Sci. Alex. Univ., 220 pp.
[4]
Saad, M. A. H. (1988). Studies on the core sediments of Lake Edku, Egypt. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit., 31,2.
[5]
Moussa, A. A.; EL-Sayed, M. A. (1990). Geochemistry of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in sediment cores from Lake Edku. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit., 32,1, 67.
[6]
Shridah, M. M. A. (1992). recent observations on some hydrographic and chemical aspects of Lake Edku waters; Egypt. Bull. High Inst. Publ. Health, vol. XXII, (1): 185-201.
[7]
Abdel-Moati, A. R.; EL-Sammak, A. A. (1996). Man-made impact on the geochemistry of the Nile delta lakes. A study of metal concentrations in sediment. Journal of water, air and soil pollution, 90: 413-429.
[8]
Shakweer, L. M., EL-Ebiary, E. H.; Zaki, M. A. (1998). Comparative study on the major biochemical constituents in the muscles of Mugil Cephalus inhabiting the Mediterranean water, the northern delta lakes and fish farms of Egypt. Bull. Nat. Ins. Oceanogr. Fish., Egypt. 24: 79-101.
[9]
Nour EL-Din, N. M. (2000). Study of the chemical composition of suspended matter and adsorbed elements in Lake Edku. M. Sc. Thesis. Fac. Sci. Alex. Uni, 219 p.
[10]
Shata, M. A. and Okbah, M. A. (2001). Geochemical Behavior of some trace elements in deep cores of Lake Edku, Egypt. 5 th Inter. Conf. On Geochemistry, Alex. Univ., Egypt, 12-13 Sept. 2001: 103-114.
[11]
Shata, M. A. (2000). Lithofacies characteristics of subsurface sediments of Lake Edku, Egypt. (In Press).
[12]
Folk, R. L. (1974). Petrography of sedimentary rocks. Univ. Texas, Hemphill, Austin, Tex., 182.
[13]
Gaudette, H. E.; Flight. W. R. (1974). An inexpensive titration method for the determination of organic carbon in recent sediments. Journal of sedimentary petrology. 44 (1), 249-253.
[14]
Molina, B. F. (1974). A rapid and accurate method for the analysis of calcium carbonate in small samples. J. Sed. Petrol., 44 (2): 589-590.
[15]
Oregioni, B.; Aston. S. R. (1984). The determination of selected trace metals in marine sediments by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. IAEA Monaco Laboratory Internal Report. UNEP, reference methods for marine pollution studies, 38.
[16]
Bryan, G. W., Langston, W. J. (1992). ”Bioavailability, accumulation and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to United Kingdom estuaries,” a review. Environmental Pollution 76: pp. 89-131.
[17]
Yuan, C. G., J. B. Shi, B. He, J. F. Liu, L. N. Liang and G. B. Jiang, (2004). Speciation of heavy metals in marine sediments from the East China Sea by ICP-MS with sequential extraction. Environ. Int., 30: 769-783.
[18]
Rodríguez-Barroso, R. M., Y. Benhamou, B. El Moumni, I. El Hatimi, J. L. García-Morales, (2009). Evaluation of metal contamination in sediments from north of Morocco: Geochemical and statistical approaches. Environ. Monit. Assess, 159 (1-4): 169-181.
[19]
Massoud A. H. S. (1987). Limnological studies on the Nozha Hydrodrome, Egypt, with special reference to the problems of pollution Science of The Total Environment Volume 67, Issues 2–3, December 1987, Pages 195-214.
[20]
Solomons, W., FÖrstner, U. (1984). Metals in the Hydrocycle. Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 349.
[21]
Baize D, Sterckeman T. (2001). Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements. Sci Total Environ 264: 127–139
[22]
Singh M.; Muller G.; Sigh, I. B. (2003). Geogenic distribution and baseline concentration of heavy metals in sediments of the Ganges River, India. J Geochem Explor 80: 1–7.
[23]
Turekian,K. K.; Wedepohl, K. H. (1961). Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust”, American Geology Soc. Bulletin, 72: 175−182.
[24]
van den Oever, F. (2000). Aruba-a geochemical baseline study. Neth J Geosci 79 (4): 467–477.
[25]
Lech, M. E., Raymond, O. L., Wyborn, L. A. I. (2002). Potential applications in baseline geochemical data integration for geoscience Australia–– a report of findings from a pilot study. Geoscience Australia, Record 2003/08, 35.
[26]
Zhang, H. B., Luo, Y. M., Wong, M. H., Zhao, Q. G., Zhang, G. L. (2007). Defining the geochemical baseline: a case study of Hong Kong soils. Envron Geol 52: 843–851.
[27]
Kabata-Pendias, A., Dudka, S., Chlopecha, A. (1992). Background levels and environmental influences on trace metals in soils of the temperate humid zone of Europe. In: Adriano DC (ed) Biogeochemistry of trace metals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 61–84.
[28]
Darnley A. G. (1995). International geochemical mapping—a review. J Geochem Explor 55: 5–10.
[29]
Chen M, Ma LQ, Harris WG (1999) Baseline concentration of 15 trace elements in Florida surface soils. J Environ Qual 28: 1173–1181.
[30]
Salminen R, Gregorauskiene V. (2000). Considerations regarding the definition of a geochemical baseline of elements in the surficial materials in areas differing in basic geology. Appl Geochem 15: 647–653.
[31]
Gough L. P. (1993). Understanding our fragile environment lessons from geochemical studies. US Geol Surv Circ 1105: 1–34.
[32]
Tack FMG, Vanhaesebroeck T, Verloo MG, Van Rompaey K, VanRanst E. (2005). Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium). Environ Pollut 134: 173–179.
[33]
Sierra M, Martı´nez FJ, Aguilar J. (2007). Baselines for trace elements and evaluation of environmental risk in soils of Almerı´a (SE Spain). Geoderma 139: 209–219.
[34]
Förstner U, Ahlf W, Calmono W. (1993). Sediment quality objectives and criteria development in Germany. Water Science and Technology; 28: 307-16.
[35]
Singh AK, Hasnain SI. (1999). Environmental geochemistry of Damodar River basin, east coast of India. Environmental Geology; 37: 124-36.
[36]
Bakan G, Balkas TI. (1999). Enrichment of metals in the surface sediments of Sapanca Lake. Water Environment Research; 71: 71-74.
[37]
Taylor SR. (1964). The abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust- a new table. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta; 28: 1273-85.
[38]
Woitke, P.; Wellmitz, J.; Helm, D.; Kube, P.; Lepom, P., Litheraty, P. (2003). Analysis and assessment of heavy metal pollution in suspended solids and sediments of the river Danube. Chemosphere. 51: 633.642.
[39]
Selvaraj, K.; Ram Mohan, V.; Szefer, P. (2004). Evaluation of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Bay of Bengal, India: geochemical and statistical approaches. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 49: 174.185.
[40]
Adamo, P.; Arienzo, M.; Imperato, M.; Naimo, D.; Nardi, G.; Stanzione, D. (2005). Distribution and partition of heavy metals in surface and sub-surface sediments of Naples city port. Chemosphere. 61: 800.809
[41]
Tippie, V. K. (1984). An environmental characterization of Chesapeake bay and a frame work for action. In: Kennedy, V. (ed.) the Estuary as a Filter. Academic Press, New York, pp. 467-487.
[42]
Schiff, K. C.; Weisberg, S. B. (1999). Iron as a reference element for determining trace metal enrichment in southern California coastal shelf sediments. Mar. Environ. Res. 48: 161. 176.
[43]
Turner, A.; Millward, G. E. (2000). Particle dynamics and trace metal reactivity in estuarine plumes. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 50: 761.774.
[44]
Atgm, R. S., O. El-Agha, A. Zararsiz, A. Kocatas, H. Parlak; Tuncel, G. (2000). Investigation of the sediment pollution in Izmir Bay: Trace elements. Spectrochimica Acta Part B., 55: 1151-116.
[45]
Angelidis, M. O.,; Aloupi, M. (1997). Assessment of metal contamination in shallow coastal sediments around Mytilene, Greece. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 68 (2), 281-293.
[46]
Liaghati, Tania; Cox, Malcolm E.; Preda, Micaela (2005). Distribution of Fe in waters and bottom sediments of a small estuarine catchment, Pumicestone Region, southeast Queensland, Australia. Science of the Total Environment 336 (1-3):pp. 243-254.
[47]
Forstner, U., Muller, G., (1973). Heavy metal accumulation in river sediments: A response to environmental pollution. Geoforum 14/17, 53–61.
[48]
Szefer, P., Glasby, G. P., Stuben, D., Kusak, A., Geldon, J., Berner, Z.,; Neumann, T., Warzocha, J. (1999). Distribution of selected heavy metals and rare earth elements in surficial sediments from the polish sector of the Vistula Lagoon. Chemosphere, vol. 39 (15), pp. 2785-2798.
[49]
Obiajunwa, E. I., Pelemo, D. A., Owolabi, S. A., Fasasi, M. K.; Johnson- Fatokun, F. O. (2002). Characteristics of heavy metal pollutants of soils and sediments around a crude-oil production terminal using EDXRF. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, vol. 194 (B), pp. 61-64.
[50]
Zabetoglou, K.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C. (2002). Toxicity and heavy metal contamination of surficial sediments from the Bay of Thessaloniki (Northwestern Aegean Sea) Greece. Chemosphere. 49, 17-26.
[51]
Mucha, A. P., Vasconcelos, M. T. S. D., Bordalo, A. A. (2003). Macro benthic community in the Doura Estuary: relations with trace metals and sediment characteristics. Environmental Pollution, vol. 121, pp. 169-180.
[52]
Hökanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Res. 14, 975–1001.
[53]
Savvides C., Papadopoulos, A., Haralambous K. J.; Loizidou M.(1995). Sea sediment contaminated with heavy metals: metal speciation and removal. Water Science and Technology, 32, No. 9-10, 65-73.
[54]
Pekey H., Karakas D., Ayberk S., Tolum L.; Bakoglu M. (2004). Ecological risk assessment using trace elements from surface sediments of Izmir Bay (Northeastern Marmara Sea) Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48: 946-953.
[55]
Soares, H. M., Boaventura, R. A. R.; Esteves da Silva, J. (1999). Sediments as Monitors of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Ave River Basin (Portugal): Multivariate Analysis of Data”, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 105,: 311-323.
[56]
Tomlinson,D. L., Wilson, J. G., Harris, C. R.; Jeffney, D. W. (1980). Problems in the assessment of heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index”, Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters, 33: 566-572.
[57]
Harikumar,P. S. Nasir U. P.; Mujeebu Rahma, M. P. (2009). Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system,“International Journal. Environmental Science Technology, 6 (2): 225-232.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186