Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Lagos Lagoon ii: Evaluation and Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments of the Lagoon
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 56-63
Received: Jan. 6, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 24, 2017;
Published: Mar. 28, 2017
Views 2026 Downloads 97
Alani Rose, Chemistry Department, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Drouillard Ken, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Wndsor, Ontario, Canada
Olayinka Kehinde, Chemistry Department, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Alo Babajide, Chemistry Department, University of Lagos, Nigeria
PAHs in the Lagos lagoon are high enough to raise concern over possible adverse effects on aquatic organisms and human health. Their spatial distribution in the sediment was largely dependent on the proximity of the sediment deposition site to known sources of pollution. Due to their tendency to accumulate in sediments at the bottom of the food chain, PAHs in the lagoon could pose a toxicological threat to benthic organisms and their predators. In this study, the PAH levels in the sediments of the lagoon at twelve locations were evaluated. This work is a follow-up on an earlier paper showing the levels of PAHs in the water samples of the lagoon. All sixteen EPA priority PAHs were found in eight of the locations. Significant amounts of most of the PAHs were found in all the sediments throughout the year. The higher PAHs were more abundant and distributed across the lagoon. Bioavailability assessment revealed that the PAHs were not bioavailable. Adjusted Equilibrium Sediment Benchmark Toxic Units ΣESBTU revealed that the lagoon sediments at all the locations were not toxic to aquatic life.
Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Lagos Lagoon ii: Evaluation and Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments of the Lagoon, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 56-63.
Jassby, A. D., Cloern, J. E., Powell, T. M. (1993) Organic Carbon sources and Sinks in San Francisco Bay: Variability induced by River Flow. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 39-54.
Neff, J. M., Wood J. Q., & Gulbransen, T. C (1987) Recalculation of Screening Level Concentrations for non Polar Organic Contaminants in Marine Sediments (Final Report). Washington, D. C. Environmental Protection Agency.
Nichols, F. H., Cloern, J. E., Luoma, S. N., Peterson, D. H., (1986). The Modification of an Estuancy. Science 231, 567 – 573.
Hostettler, F. D., Pereira, W. E., Kvenvolden, K. A., Van Geen A, Luoma, S. N., Fuller, C. C., Anima, R. (1999). A record of Hydrocarbon input to San Francicol Bay as traced by biomarker profiles in Surface Sediment and Sediment cores Marine Chemistry 64, 115 – 127.
Davis, J. (2003), PAHs in Estuary. Regional Monitoring News, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Vol. 2, Issue 2, 1 – 20pp.
Ajao, E. A. (1996) Review of the state of pollution of the Lagos Lagoon. NIOMR Tech. Paper No. 106. 20.
Yamamoto, K., Fukushima, M., Kakutani, N. & Kuroda, K., (1997): Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Rivers and their Estuaries in Osaka Japan. Environ. Pollut. Vol. 95 No. 1. pp. 135 – 143. Great Britain.
Meador, J. P. et al (1995). Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Marine Organisms. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 143, 79-165.
Corbitt, R. A.(1998): Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering 2nd Edition. McGraw- Hill. New York.
Van Metre, P. C., Manler, B. J. and Furlong, E. T. (2000): Urban Sprawl Leaves its PAH Signature. Eviron. Sci. Technol. Vol. 34, No. 19, 4064 – 4070.
Hostettler, F. D., Rapp, J. B., Kvenvolden, K. A. & Luoma, S. N. (1989) Organic makers as Source Discriminants and Sediment Transport Indicators in South San Francisco Bay, California Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 1563-76.
O’ Malley, V. P., Abrajano, T. A., Jr. Hellou, J (1994) Org. Geochem. 21, 809.
Ghosh, U.; Cillette, S; Luthy, R. G.; and Zare, R. N. (2000) Microscale Location, Characterization, and Association of polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Harbour Sediment particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1729 – 1736.
Howgate, P. Eleftheriou, A., Mclntyre, A. D., Mackie, P. R. Whittle, K. J. & Farmer, J., (1977) Petroleum Tainting in Fish. This Volume pp. 143-6.
Alani, R. A., Drouillard, K. G., Olayinka, K. O., and Alo, B. I (2013b). Bioaccumulation of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Fish and invertebrates of Lagos. Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 4 (1): 22-30 ISSN: 2153-649X, doi: 10.5251/ajsir.
Long, E. R., (1992). Ranges in Chemical Concentrations in Sediments Associated with Adverse Biological Effects. Mar. Poll. Bull. 24, 38 – 45.
MacDonald, D. D., Carr, R. S., Calder, F. D., Long, E. R., & Ingersoll, C. G. (1996). Development and Evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines for Florida Coastal Water. Ecotoxicology, 5, 253 – 278.
Walker, C. H. (2009). Organic Pollutants. An Ecotoxicological Perspective. New York. CRC Press, 414p.
Swartz, R. C. S Chultz, D. W., Ozretich, R. J., Lamberson, J. O., Cole, F. A. Dewitt, T. H., Redmond, M. S., & Ferraro, S. P. (1995). PAH: a model to predict the toxicity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in field collected sediments. Environ Toxicol. Chem., 11, 1567 – 1581.
Alani, R. A., Olayinka, K. O., and Alo, B. I (2013c) Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Lagos Lagoon 1: Occurrence and Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In Surface Waters of the Lagoon. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 4 (6): 811-818. ISSN: 2141-7016.
Lazar R, Edwards RC, Metcalfe CD, Metcalfe T, Gobas FAPC, Haffner GD. 1992. A simple, novel method for the quantitative analysis of coplanar (nonortho substituted) polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples. Chemosphere 25: 493–504.
Alani, R. A., Drouillard, K. G., Olayinka, K. O., and Alo, B. I (2012a) Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Fish and invertebrates of Lagoon, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3 (2): 287-296. ISSN: 2141-7016.
Pazdro, K. (2002) Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk. Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot.
Bartle, K. D., Creaser, C. & Purchase, R. (1991) Food Contaminants, Sources and Surveillance. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 41.
Potrykus, J., Albalat, A., Pempkowiak, J. & Porte, C. (2003) Content and pattern of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and DDT) in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from the southern BalticSea*. OCEANOLOGIA 45, 337–355.
CCME (1999) Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: Summary tables. In: Canadian environmental quality guidelines, 1999, Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment, Winnipeg.
Cole, S., Codling, I. D., Parr, W. and Zabel, T. (1999) Guidelines for managing water quality impacts within UK European marine sites. Prepared by: WRc Swindon Frankland Road Blagrove Swindon Wiltshire SN5 8YF, 13-109.
Varanasi, U., Gmur, D. J. & Rechert, W. L. (1981) Effect of environmental temperature on naphthalene metabolism by juvenile starry flounder (platichthys sllelatus). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 10, 203-214.