Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils of Brunei Darussalam and Their Relationship with Selected Soil Properties
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 64-72
Received: Mar. 7, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 23, 2017; Published: Apr. 13, 2017
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Authors
Kyi Pyar Zin, Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam; A-1, Irrigation Compound, 8½ Mile, Republic of the Union of Myanmar
L. H. Lim, Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
J. M. R. Sarath Bandara, Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
H. M. Thippeswamy, Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Unit, Crop Industry Division, Department of Agriculture and Agrifood, Ministry of Primary Resources and Tourism, Brunei Darussalam
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Abstract
In Brunei Darussalam, available information of heavy metals in agricultural soils is sparse and hence a baseline study was carried out on soils in rice growing areas. In this study, trace elements as well as common soil characteristics were determined from twenty six of major rice fields such as Wasan, Limau Manis, Selapon and Lot Senkuang. Al, Fe, Mn and Cd were high in these areas however; Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni and Pb were below safety limit of soil while Mn and Cd were above the permissible limit according to the WHO/CCME/European Union guidelines. The variations in metal concentrations in these samples are highly correlated to the acidic condition, organic matter and CEC of the paddy soils. The distributions of Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb were high at low pH. Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb showed positive correlation with organic matter while the quantities of Al, Fe, Mn, Cr and Co were negatively correlated. Correlation analyses showed that the Cd, Zn and Ni were associated with CEC while most of the metals were related to Al and Fe. The soils of the studied areas are extremely acidic with pH 3.0-4.6, and low in cations, CEC and available P, while having a high OM content. Low content of P was due to high amount of Al and Fe in these areas.
Keywords
Heavy Metals, Soil Acidity, Aifisols, Histosols, Vertisols
To cite this article
Kyi Pyar Zin, L. H. Lim, J. M. R. Sarath Bandara, H. M. Thippeswamy, Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils of Brunei Darussalam and Their Relationship with Selected Soil Properties, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 64-72. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20170503.11
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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