Chemical Characterization and Source Determination of Trace Elements in PM2.5 and PM10 from an Urban Area, Northern Jordan
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 103-108
Received: May 13, 2017; Accepted: May 24, 2017; Published: Jul. 10, 2017
Views 1912      Downloads 87
Authors
Idrees F. Al-Momani, Chemistry Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Wisam M. Shatnawi, Chemistry Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
PM2.5 and PM10 atmospheric particulate material samples were collected from Irbid city, Northern Jordan using a dichotomous air sampler. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for 17 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, V and Zn) using ICP-OES. Levels of measured elements were compared to concentrations in many other locations worldwide. Concentrations of most elements are in the lower limits of the reported values for urban and sub-urban sites. Elements of natural sources; Al, Ca, Fe, and P have higher concentrations compared to other cities worldwide. Results indicated that, elements of crustal origin are associated with the coarse particles, while elements of anthropogenic origins are more associated with fine particles. Crustal enrichment factor calculations showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, Sb, and Ag are highly enriched and As, Cu, Co, Ca, and Ni are moderately enriched. Factor analysis calculations permitted the identification of three sources affecting the levels of elements in the fine fraction, namely re-suspended road dust, automobile emissions, and industrial emissions.
Keywords
PM10, PM2.5, ICP-OES, Trace Elements, Source Identification, Jordan
To cite this article
Idrees F. Al-Momani, Wisam M. Shatnawi, Chemical Characterization and Source Determination of Trace Elements in PM2.5 and PM10 from an Urban Area, Northern Jordan, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 103-108. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20170504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Sarnat, J. A., Marmur, A., Klein, M., Kim, E., Russell, A. G., Mulholland, J. A., Hopke, P. K., Sarnat, S. E., Peel, J. L., Tolbert, P. E. (2006). Associations between source-resolved particulate matter and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits. Epidemiology 17: S267-S268.
[2]
Freitas, M. C., Pacheco, A. M. G., Verburg, T. G., Wolterbeek, H. T. (2010). Effect of particulate matter, atmospheric gases, temperature, and humidity on respiratory and circulatory diseases trends in Lisbon, Portugal. Environ. Monit. Assess. 162: 113–121.
[3]
Perez, N., Pey, J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Lopez, J. M., Viana, M. (2008). Partitioning of major and trace components in PM10–PM2.5–PM1 at an urban site in Southern Europe. Atmos. Environ. 42: 1677–1691.
[4]
Andersen, Z. J., Wahlin, P., Raaschou–Nielsen, O., Scheike, T., Sloft. (2006). Ambient particle source apportionment and daily hospital admissions among children and elderly in Copenhagen. Epidemiology 17: S200– S201.
[5]
Al-Momani, I. F., Al-Rawi, Z. R., Salameh, A. M., Bataineh, Q. (2005). Blood Lead levels in Children living in Northern Jordan. Abhath Al-Yarmouk “Basic Sci.Eng. 14 (2): 217-227.
[6]
Al-Momani, I. F., Daradkeh, A. S., Haj-Hussein, A. T., Yousef, Y. A., Jaradat, Q. M., Momani, K. A. (2005). Trace elements in daily collected aerosols in Al-Hashimya, central Jordan. Atmos. Res. 73: 87–100.
[7]
Zhang, R. J., Shen, Z. X., Zou, H.,Wang,W., Han,Y., and Zhou, J. (2008). Study of Elemental Mass Size Distributions of Aerosol in Lijiang, a Background Site in Southwest China. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 8: 339–347.
[8]
Al-Momani, I. F., Gullu, G., Eler, U., Ortel, E., Sirin, G., Tuncel, G. (1999). Long range transport of pollutants from Europe to the Eastern Mediterranean. Fresenius Envir. Bull. 8: 249-256.
[9]
Al-Momani, I. F., Gullu, G., Olmez, I., Eler, U., Ortel, E., Sirin, G., Tuncel, G. (1997). Chemical composition of Eastern Mediterranean aerosol and precipitation: Indications of long-range transport. Pure & Appl. Chem. 69 (1): 41-46.
[10]
Al-Momani, I. F. (2003). Trace elements in atmospheric precipitation at Northern Jordan measured by ICP-MS: acidity and possible sources. Atmos. Environ. 37, 4507–4515.
[11]
Tashtoush, M. H., Al-Momani, I. F. (2012). Relationship Between Air Mass Back Trajectories and Levels of Pollutants in the Fine Particle Fraction in Ajlune Air, Jordan, Master Thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid-Jordan.
[12]
Wang, Q., Zhuang, G., Juan, L., Huang, K., Zhang, R., Jiang, Y., et al. (2011). Mixing of Dust with Pollution on the Transport Path of Asian Dust – Revealed from the Aerosol Over Yulin, the North Edge of Loess Plateau. Sci. Tot. Environ., 409: 573–581.
[13]
Al-Momani, I. F., Attiyat, A. S., Al-Momani, R. M. (2015). Influence of Different Heating Systems on the Bioavailable Fractions of Some Elements in House Dust, Jordan Journal of Chemistry 10 (3), 194-204.
[14]
Ababneh, F. A., Abu-Sbeih, K. A., Al-Momani, I. F. (2013). Evaluation of Allergenic Metals and Other Trace Elements in Personal Care Products, Jordan Journal of Chemistry 8 (3), 179-190.
[15]
Alomary, A., Belhadj, S., Obeidat, S., Al-Momani, I. F., Attiyat, A. (2012). A comparison of SEM-EDS with ICP-OES for the Quantitative Elemental Determination of Algerian Mediterranean Sea Sediments, Jordan Journal of Chemistry 7 (4), 383-391.
[16]
Al-Momani I. F. (2009), "Assessment of Trace Metal Distribution and Contamination in Surface Soils of Amman, Jordan", Jordan Journal of Chemistry 4 (1), 77-87.
[17]
Obeidat, S. M, Othman, R., Al-Momani‏, I. F. (2016). Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sediments from the Mediterranean Coastal Zone of Ajdabia to Benghazi, Libya: Case Study‏, Jordan Journal of Chemistry 11 (4), 247-258.
[18]
Das, R., Khezri, B., Srivastava, B., Datta, S., Sikdar, P., Webster, R., Wang, X. (2015). Trace element composition of PM2.5 and PM10 from Kolkata – a heavily polluted Indian metropolis. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 6: 742-750.
[19]
Hueglin, C., Gehrig, R., Baltensperge, U., Gysel, M., Monn, C., Vonmont, H. (2005). Chemical characterization of PM2.5, PM10 and coarse particles at urban, near-city and rural sites in Switzerland. Atmos. Environ. 39: 637–651.
[20]
Oucher N., Kerbachi R., Ghezloun A., Merabet H. (2015). Magnitude of Air Pollution by Heavy Metals Associated with Aerosols Particles in Algiers, Energy Procedia 74: 51–58.
[21]
Waheed, A., Li, X., Tan, M., Bao, L., Liu, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, G., Li Y. (2011). Size Distribution and Sources of Trace Metals in Ultrafine/Fine/Coarse Airborne Particles in the Atmosphere of Shanghai, Aerosol Sci. Tech. 45: 163–171.
[22]
Wang, X., Sato, T., Xing, B., Tamamura, S., Tao, S. (2005). Source identification, size distribution and indicator screening of airborne trace metals in Kanazawa, Japan, Aerosol Sci. 36: 197–210.
[23]
Pratesi, G., Zoppi, M., Vaiani, T., Calastrini, F. (2007). A Morphometric and Compositional Approach to the Study of Ambient Aerosol in a Medium Industrial Town of Italy, Water Air Soil Pollut. 179: 283–296.
[24]
Rodriguez, S., Alastuey, A., Alonso-Perez, S., Querol, X., Cuevas, E., Abreu-Afonso, J., Viana, M., Perez, N., Pandolfi, M., de la Rosa, J. (2011). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6663–6685.
[25]
Hamdi, M. R., Bdour, A., Tarawneh, Z. (2008). Diesel Quality in Jordan: Impacts of Vehicular and Industrial Emissions on Urban Air Quality. Environ. Eng. Sci. 25(9): 1334-1343.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186