Historical Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Sediments of Toulon Bay (South of France)
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2017, Pages: 150-158
Received: Aug. 28, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 8, 2017; Published: Nov. 29, 2017
Views 298      Downloads 27
Emmanuel Wafo, Chemistry Department Pharmaceutic, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Marseille, France
Lydia Abou, Chemistry Department Pharmaceutic, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Marseille, France
Alain Nicolay, Chemistry Department Pharmaceutic, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Marseille, France
Pierre Boissery, Agence Some Water, Marseille, France
Cédric Garnier, Chemistry Department, Laboratory PROTEE, University of the South of Toulon, Toulon, France
Henri Portugal, Chemistry Department Pharmaceutic, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Marseille, France
Article Tools
Follow on us
The levels of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface sediments and four dated sediment cores from Toulon Bay were determined and characterized by strong implantation. The total PAH levels in the superficial sediments ranged from 0.30 to 34.11 mg.kg-1 dry weight in the 0-5 layer and from 0.34 to 54.68 mg.kg-1 dry weight in the 5-10 layer. The qualitative assessment of sediment samples revealed relatively high PAH levels compared with French reference values. The results indicated that the PAHs in Toulon Bay are of pyrolytic origin. Estimating the rate of sedimentation based on pronounced events, such as explosive growth in the use of petroleum products, major developments, and periods of conflict, can be used to follow the history of pollution based on its composition over a period of approximately 130 to 180 years, depending on the length of the cores.
Toulon Bay, Sediment, PAHs, Pollution, Depth Profile
To cite this article
Emmanuel Wafo, Lydia Abou, Alain Nicolay, Pierre Boissery, Cédric Garnier, Henri Portugal, Historical Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Sediments of Toulon Bay (South of France), International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 150-158. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20170506.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Watanabe, T., Ohe T., Hirayama, T. (2005) Occurrence and Origin of Mutagenicity in Soil and Water Environment. Environmental Science 12 (6): 325-346.
Meador, J. P., Stein, J. E., Reichert, W. L., Varanasi, U. (1995) Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Marine Organisms. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1143: 79-165.
Dudgeon, D., Arthington, A. H., Gessner, M. O., Kawabata, Z., Knowler, D. J., Leveque, C., Naiman, R. J. (2006) Freshwater Biodiversity: Importance, Threats, Status and Conservation Challenges. Biological Reviews Camb Philosophical Society 81 (2): 163-182.
Bernard, G., Denis, J., Deneux, F., Belsher, T., Sauzade, D., Boudouresque, C. F., Charbonnel, E., Emery, E., Herve, G., Bonhomme, P. (2001) Etude et Cartographie des Biocénoses de la Rade de Toulon-Rapport de Synthèse Final. Contrat d'étude pour le SIAT, IFREMER et GIS Posidonie. IFREMER, 150p.
Commendatore, M. G., Marina, L., Nievas, A., Amin, O. B., Esteves, J. L. (2012) Sources and Distribution of Aliphatic and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina). Marine Environmental Research 74: 20-31.
Tessier, E., Garnier, C., Mullot, J. U., Lenoble, V., Arnaud, M., Raynaud, M., Mounier, S. (2011) Study of the Spatial and Historical Distribution of Sediment Inorganic Contamination in the Toulon Bay (France). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (10):2075-2086.
Sarrazin, L., Diana, C., Wafo, E., Pichard-Lagadec, V., Schembri, T., Monod, J. L. (2006) Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Marine, Brackish, and River Sediments by HPLC, Following Ultrasonic Extraction. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 29 (1): 69-85.
Wafo, E., Abou, L., Nicolay, A., Boissery, P., Perez, T, Ngono Abondo, R, Garnier, C., Chacha, C., Portugal, H. (2016) A chronicle of the changes undergone by a maritime territory, the Bay of Toulon (Var Coast, France), and their consequences on PCB contamination. Springer Plus 5:1230.
Alzieu, C. (2005) Evaluation des risques liés à l'immersion des boues de dragages des ports maritimes. In Programme national d'écotoxicologie: avancées récentes de la recherche. La documentation française 75-92.
Celino, J. J., de Oliveira, O. M. C., Hadlich, G. M., Queiroz, A. F., Garcia, K. S. (2008). Assessment of Contamination by Trace Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Sediments from the Tropical Estuary of Todos os Santos Bay. Brazilian Journal Geology 38:753-760.
Khairy, M. A., Kolb, M., Mostafa, A. R., El-Fiky, A., Bahadir, M. (2009) Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Mediterranean Semi-Enclosed Basin Affected by Human Activities (Abu Qir Bay, Egypt). Journal of Hazardous Materials 170 (1):389-397.
Gaspare, L., Machiwa, J. F., Mdachi, S. J. M., Streck, G., Brack, W. (2009) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination of Surface Sediments and Oysters from the Inter-Tidal Areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environmental Pollution 157 (1):24-34.
Dell’Anno, A., Beolchini, F., Gabellini, M., Rocchetti, L., Pusceddu, A., and Danovaro, R. (2009) Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Anoxic Marine Sediments: Consequences on the Speciation of Heavy Metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58 (12):1808-1814.
Garali, A. B., Ouakad, M., Gueddari, M. (2010) Contamination of Superficial Sediments by Heavy Metals and Iron in the Bizerte Lagoon, Northern Tunisia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 3 (3):295-306.
Mirza, R., Mohammadi, M., Sohrab, A. D., Safahieh, A., Savari, A., Hajeb, P. (2011) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seawater, Sediment, and Rock Oyster Saccostrea Cucullata from the Northern Part of the Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 223 (1):189-198.
Neşer, G., Kontas, A., Ünsalan, D., Altay, O., Darılmaz, E., Uluturhan, E., Küçüksezgin, F., Tekoğul, N., Yercan, F. (2012) Polycyclic Aromatic and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Pollution at the Coast of Aliağa (Turkey) Ship Recycling Zone. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64 (5):1055-1059.
Bastami, K. D., Afkhami, M. Ehsanpour, M., Kazaali, A., Mohammadizadeh, M., Haghparast, S., Soltani, F., Zanjani, S. A., Ghorghani, N. F., Pourzare, R. (2013) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Coastal Water, Surface Sediment and Mullet Liza Klunzingeri from Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf). Marine Pollution Bulletin 76 (1-2):411-416.
Darılmaz, E., Kontaş, A., Uluturhan, E., Akçalı, İ., Altay, O. (2013) Spatial Variations in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations at Surface Sediments from the Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean): Relation to Ecological Risk Assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 75 (1-2):174-181.
Miki, S., Uno, S., Ito, K., Koyama, J., Tanaka, H. (2014) Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 85 (2):558-565.
Yim, U. H., Hong, S. H., Ha, S. Y., Han, G. M., An, J. G., Kim, N. S., Lim, D., Choi, H. W., and Shim, W. J. (2014) Source- and Region-Specific Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Jinhae Bay, Korea. Science of The Total Environment 470-471:1485-1493.
Zhou, R., Xuebo, Q., Shitao, P., Shihuai, D. (2014) Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of Bohai Bay, China: Long-term Variations in Pollution Status and Adverse Biological Risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin 83 (1): 290-297.
Araghi, P. E., Bastami, K. D., Rahmanpoor, S. (2014) Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Surface Sediments of Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 89 (1-2): 494-498.
Mille, G., Asia, L., Guiliano, M., Malleret, L., Doumenq, P. (2007) Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediments from the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Fos Area, France). Marine Pollution Bulletin 54 (5): 566-575.
Tuncel, S. G., Topal, T. (2015) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sea sediments of the Turkish Mediterranean coast, composition and sources. Environmental Science Pollution Research 22:4213-4221.
Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., Michon, Q., Garrigues, P., Burgeot, T. and Bellocq, J. (1998) Origin and Bioavailability of PAHs in the Mediterranean Sea from Mussel and Sediment Records. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 47 (1):77-90.
Qiao, M., Wang, C., Huang, S., Wang, D., Wang, Z. (2006) Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environmental International 32: 28-33.
Peters, C. A., Knightes, C. D., Brown, D. G. (1999) Long-term composition dynanamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment. Environmental Science and Technology 33:4499-4507.
Us EPA, (1993) Provisional Guidance for quantitative Risk Assessment of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons EPA/600/R/089, Washington, DC: Office of Research and development, Us Environmental Protection Agency.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931