Effects of Expansion of Cultivation on Pastoralism as a Food-Security Measure in Longido District, Northern Tanzania
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2017, Pages: 159-166
Received: Sep. 17, 2017;
Accepted: Oct. 4, 2017;
Published: Dec. 11, 2017
Views 1782 Downloads 81
Victoria Anthony Nderumaki, Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
Francis Xavier Mkanda, C/O George Nxumalo, Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Mzuzu, Malawi
Josephat Alexander Saria, Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
The pace at which cultivation is expanding in the pastoral livelihood zones accentuates the need to take a pro-active role in choosing land use practices that increase food production in areas such as Longido District where climate variability renders agricultural production uncertain, but pastoralism as the mainstay of the economy. This study used a structured questionnaire to randomly assess the perceived impact of expansion of cultivation on 165 respondents in three ecological zones, namely Lowlands, Hills, and Mountains of Longido District in Northern Tanzania. Results show that expansion of cultivation results into reduced herd-splitting, a practice that enhances niche specialization grazing land by browsers and grazers. It also leads to loss of grazing land, restricted livestock movement, and escalation of conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. Considering the role pastoralism in the district, these effects are a potential threat to pasture availability, livestock productivity, and food security. To minimize the threat, it would be appropriate for the Longido District authorities, in conjunction with the communities, to establish reserves of grazing lands based on ecological zones. Such areas would have to be protected by traditional rules, coupled with village by laws that shall be strictly enforced as part of a food-security policy.
Victoria Anthony Nderumaki,
Francis Xavier Mkanda,
Josephat Alexander Saria,
Effects of Expansion of Cultivation on Pastoralism as a Food-Security Measure in Longido District, Northern Tanzania, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 5, No. 6,
2017, pp. 159-166.
IUCN (Ed) 2013, Enhancing food security in pastoral areas through pastoralism and mobility. Proceedings of the 40 Committee of Food Security under the theme constraints to smallholder investments, bio fuels and food security Workshop, Rome, Italy, 7 October, 2013. 20pp.
Krätli, S., Hülsebusch, C., Brooks, S. and Kaufmann, B. 2013, Pastoralism: A critical Asset for Food Security Under Global Climate Change. Animal Frontier. 3 (1):42-5.
Christopher, W. 2016, Strengthening Food Security in Africa: A Case for Supporting Pastoralism in East Africa Report. Strengthening Contributions to Evidence-based Policy making, funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
Nderumaki, V., Mkanda, F. X., Saria, J. 2016, Comparison of Food Insecurity among Agro-Pastoralists and Pastoralists Communities in Pastoral-Livelihood Zone of Longido District, Tanzania. Food Security, 4 (1)18-26.
Omoyo, N. N., Wakhungu, J. and Oteng’ I, S. 2015, Effects of Climate Variability on Maize Yield in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Lower Eastern Kenya, Agriculture & Food Security, 4 (8)1-13.
Ayanlade A., Odekunle, T. O., Orinmogunje, O. I., Adeoye, N. O. 2009, Inter-annual Climate Variability and Crop Yields Anomalies in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. Adv Nat Appl Sci. 3 (3):452-465.
Conroy, A. 2005, Maasai Agriculture and Land Use Change.
McCabe, J. T., Leslie, P. W. and De Luca, L. 2014, Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania. Hum Ecol Interdiscip J. 38 (3):321-334.
Niamir-Fuller, F. 1994, The Resilience of Pastoral Herding in Sahelian Africa. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge U.K.
Parfitt, J. 1997, Questionnaire Design. In Flowerdew, E. And Martin, D. (Eds.). Methods in Human Geography; A Guide for Students Doing a Research Project, Longman, London.
Valentine, G. 1997, Tell Me About Using Interviews as a Research Methodology. In: Flowerdew, E. And Martin, D. (eds.). Methods in Human Geography; a Guide for Students Doing a Research Project, Longman, London.
URT. 2013, Population and Housing Census 2012 and Population Distribution by Administrative Areas, Office of Chief Government Statistician President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning.
Sall, J. And Lehman, A. 1996, JMP Start Statistics; A Guide to Statistics and Data Analysis Using JMP and JMPIN Software. SAS. Institute Inc. International Thomson Publishing Company, New York.
Selemani, I. S. 2014, Communal Grazing Lands Management and Challenges Underpinning Pastoral Mobility In Tanzania: A Review. Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture. Livestock Research for Rural Development. (26)78.
Plane, D. A. and Rogerson, P. A. 1994, The Geographical Analysis of Populations with Applications to Planning and Business. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
Infield, M. 1988, Attitudes of a Rural Community Towards Conservation and a Local Conservation Area in Natal, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 45:21-46.
Cohen, A. S., Bills, R., Cocquyt, C. Z., and Caljon, A. G. 1993, The Impact of Sediment Pollution on Biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika. Conservation Biology 7 (3):667-677.
Shibia, M. G. 2010, Determinants of Attitudes and Perceptions on Resource Use and Management of Marsabit National Reserve, Kenya. Human Ecology, 30 (1):55-6.
Segnon, C. A., Achigan-Dako, E. G., Gaoue, G. O. and Ahanchédé, A. 2015, Farmer’s Knowledge and Perception of Diversified Farming Systems in Sub- Humid and Semi- Arid Areas in Benin. Sustainability 7:6573-6592pp.
O'Neil, D. 2011, Patterns of Subsistence: Pastoralism: In Classification of Cultures Based on the Sources and Techniques of Acquiring food and other Necessities.
FEWSNET, 2015. East Africa Price Bulletin, Tanzania. 8pp.
Moritz, M., Bebisse, L. C., Drent, A. K., Kari, S., Mouhaman, A. & Scholte, P. 2013, Range land Governance in an Open System: Protecting Transhumance Corridors in The Far North Province of Cameroon. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 3 (1)26.
Mwamfupe, D. 2015, Persistence of Farmer-Herder Conflict in Tanzania, in International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, (5)21-8.
Garrett, H. 1968, The Tragedy of The Commons: The Population Problem has no Technical Solution; It Requires a Fundamental Extension in Morality. Science 162 (3859):1243-1248pp.