International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages: 26-39
Received: Apr. 16, 2018;
Accepted: May 2, 2018;
Published: May 22, 2018
Views 291 Downloads 15
Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Yuanyuan Cheng, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Wei-lin Shi, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Population growth has motivated the gradual increase of agricultural, commercial and mini-industrial activities in Guinea-Bissau. Such activities have been contributing for the generation of certain type’s chemical products such as pesticides, fertilizers, plastic bags, hydrocarbons and others, and they are gradually contributing for the increase of harmful chemical wastes and consequently contaminating the environment and the human health since 1960s. Up to now, the country still lacks proper management of soil contaminants, fact that motivate the choice of this research topic in order to help addressing the environmental problems in Guinea-Bissau. This research aims to review the current status of soil contamination in Guinea Bissau, including the technical and regulatory management framework through a series of literature reviews, interviews, site visits and e-mail conversation, to identify the main sources and causes of soil contamination, to determine the effects on the environment and human health, the control and prevention measures including the national and international regulations. Nevertheless, the research found that, all chemicals used in this country are imported and their applications on bare soil are ones of the main causes for soil contamination due to the anthropogenic interest in Guinea-Bissau. Such in the short term can turn into a risk because of its multiplications in soil and inappropriate means of prevention and control of chemical wastes. And it will be visible in a long term due to an eventual transformation of agricultural land into severe infertility, loss of healthy environment and human fragility.
Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes,
Management of Soil Contaminants in Guinea - Bissau, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 26-39.
BBC. Guinea-Bissau country profile. BBC News. [Online] August 1, 2017. [Cited: December 27, 2017.] http://www.bbc.com.
Worldometers. Guinea-Bissau Population. Worldometers. [Online] December 26, 2017. [Cited: December 27, 2017.] http://www.worldometers.info.
UNDP. THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA-BISSAU: STRENGTHENING RESILIENCE AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE AGRARIAN AND WATER SECTORS. Bissau: Enveronment and Energy, 2015.
Distribuição espacial de valores prováveis de precipitação pluvial para períodos quinzenais, em Guiné-Bissau. Sadjo Danfá, Antônio M. da Silva, Carlos R. de Mello, Gilberto Coelho, Marcelo R. Viola and Léo F. Ávila. 2014, agriambi, pp. 67–74.
Cunha, Dr. Laurentino Rofino da. effect of increasing population in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 23, 2017.
DGA. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 13, 2017.
INE. populaçao da Guiné-Bissau. http://www.stat-guinebissau.com/. [Online] December 2nd, 2017. [Cited: December 2nd, 2017.]
Population diversity: Its extent and extinction. Hughes, J.B., G.C. Daily and P.R. Ehrlich,. 2015, Science, 278:, pp. 689-692.
UNDP. Human Development Report in Guinea-Bissau. Guinea-Bissau: UNDP, 2016.
World Bank. Economia da Guiné-Bissau. Bissau: Planeta Vida, 2014.
DENARP II. Segundo Documento de Estratégia Nacional de Redução da Pobreza. Bissau: MINISTÉRIO DA ECONOMIA, PLANO E INTEGRAÇÃO REGIONAL, 2011.
Role of Chemistry in Everyday Life. Sunita B. 2016, Chemistry and Chemical Sciences, pp. 192-198.
UNITAR. PERFIL NACIONAL PARA AVALIAR AS CAPACIDADES DO PAÍS NA GESTÃO DOS PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS. Bissau: UNITAR, 2016.
DGA. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo lopes. January 20, 2017.
Djatá, Rui Nené. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 27, 2017.
Sudeshna, Shruti Datt and. Defining research strategy in a research paper. https://www.projectguru.in/publications/research-strategy-business-studies/. [Online] September 14, 2016. [Cited: December 2nd, 2017.]
DeFranzo, Susan E. difference between qualitative and quantitative research. https://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/qualitative-vs-quantitative-research/. [Online] September 16, 2011. [Cited: December 2nd, 2017.]
Sources of Soil Pollution. Mirsal, Ibrahim A. 2015, Springer Link, pp. 137-173.
WHO. Contaminated sites and health. Italy: World Health Organization, 2014.
Dias, Odoneo. The main soil contaminants in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 4, 2017.
Djatá, Rui N. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 15, 2017.
Vaz, Eng. Faustino Soares. commercial and industrial activities in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 13, 2017.
WHO. Pesticides. s.l.: who, 2015.
Effects of Pesticides on Environment. Hakeem, Khalid Rehman. 2016, Springer International, pp. 3-13.
UNEP. Rotterdam Convention on the social and environmental impact of pesticide use. s.l.: Rotterdan Convention, 2015.
Stockolm Convention. POPs Enabling Activities Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Bissau: Stockolm Convention, 2013.
World Bank. fertilizer consumption in Guinea Bissau. Bissau: World Bank, 2017.
Djatá, Rui Nené. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 18, 2017.
Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Ahmadimoghaddam, Zahra AtafarAlireza MesdaghiniaJafar NouriMehdi HomaeeMasoud YunesianMehdi. 2010, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Järup, Lars. 2015, academic.oup.com, pp. 167–182.
Cunha, Laurentino Rofino. the most typical soil contaminants in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 20, 2017.
Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metal. Monisha Jaishankar, Tenzin Tseten, Naresh Anbalagan, Blessy B. Mathew and Krishnamurthy N. Beeregowda. 2014, NCBI, pp. 60-72.
DW. Guiné-Bissau proíbe o plástico. DW. [Online] September 4, 2014. [Cited: Demceber 23, 2017.] http://www.dw.com.
INE. Estatisticas do Comércio Externo. Cabo-Verde: INE, 2016.
ANGOP. Guiné-Bissau: Capital guineense produz diariamente 250 toneladas de lixo. ANGOP. [Online] Junho 4, 2015. [Cited: December 23, 2017.] http://www.angop.ao.
DW. Guiné-Bissau proíbe o plástico. DW. [Online] September 4, 2013. [Cited: Demceber 23, 2017.] http://www.dw.com.
Lopes, Joao R. Poluiçao de socos plasticos na Guiné-Bissau. [interv.] Namir D. R. Lopes. August 6, 2017.
KENNEDY, A. L. The Effects of Soil Pollution on Humans. livestrong. [Online] June 13, 2017. [Cited: December 24, 2017.] https://www.livestrong.com.
European Commission. Soil Contamination: Impacts on Human Health. Bristol, England: Science for Environment Policy, 2013.
Soil pollution: Causes, effects and control. Dr. Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Dr. Naseer Mohammad and Dr. N. Roychoudhury. 2016, ResearchGate, pp. 1-14.
European Commission. Soil contamination impact on human health. s.l.: European Commission, 2013.
Landim, Pedro Correia. effect of pesticides on farmers. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 13, 2017.
Djatá, Rui N. [interv.] Namir D. R. Lopes. August 5, 2017.
CCICED. Special Policy Study on Soil Pollution Management. China: China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED), 2015.
UNEP. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. USA: UNEP, 2015.
Dias, Odonio. Solid waste management in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. July 15, 2017.
Lopes, João Raimundo. Soil contaminants control methods in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 10, 2017.
Tasie, Boubacar Diallo and Oyinkan. National Implementation of Regional Pesticide Policies In West Africa: The Gambia Case Study Report. Banjul: Food Security Policy Research Papers, 2017.
FAO. Rotterdam Convention Sub-regional Meeting gathers representatives from Lusophone African countries to discuss on pesticides in Cabo Verde. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Online] March 6, 2017. [Cited: December 24, 2017.] http://www.fao.org.
CAIA. Soil contaminants prevention and control in Guinea-Bissau. [interv.] Namir Domingos Raimundo Lopes. August 16, 2017.
UNEP. National lmplementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). Abuja, Nigeria: UNEP-POPS-NIP-Nigeria, 2015.
STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs). STOCKHOLM: Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 2009.
Inventario de pesticidas na Guiné-Bissau. UNEP. [Online] January 22, 2015. [Cited: December 24, 2017.] www.pic.int.
Rotterdam Convention. ON THE PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND PESTICIDES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE. Rotterdam: Rotterdam Convention, 2013.
Rotterdam Convention Ratification in Guinea-Bissau. Bissau: Rotterdam Convention, 2013.
FAO. Dakar meeting on the Rotterdam Convention in the 13 CILSS countries. Dakar: FAO, 2016.
Countrymeter. Nageria population. Countrymeter. [Online] January 1st, 2017. [Cited: December 10, 2017.] http://countrymeters.info/en/Nigeria.
Green Pesticides in Nigeria:An Overview. Lami A. Nnamonu, Amana Onekutu. 2015, Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare.
Afua B. Banful, Ephraim Nkonya, Victor Oboh. Constraints to Fertilizer Use in Nigeria: Perspectives and Insights from the Agricultural Extension Service. Nigeria: nigeria.countrystat.org, 2014.
FAO. Food Security Statistics- Nigeria. Roma: FAOSTAT, 2012.
Problems associated with pesticide usage and application in Nigerian cocoa production: A review. Dongo, E. U. Asogwa and L. N. 2009, African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4, pp. 675-683.
Shaibu, Inalegwu. 30 Agrochemical Products Banned in Nigeria After Deaths. Nigeria: organicconsumers.org, 2008.
NLIPWatch. Guidelines for Pesticides Resgistration in Nigeria. NLIPWatch. [Online] December 9, 2017. [Cited: December 22, 2017.] https://nlipw.com.
Bello, Mallam Adamu. NATIONAL FERTILIZER POLICY FOR NIGERIA. Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development , 2014.
Constraints to fertilizer use in Nigeria. BANFUL, AFUA BRANOAH, NKONYA, EPHRAIM and OBOH, VICTOR. 2010, IFPRI DISCUSSION PAPER, pp. 1-28.
FAO. Food Security Statistics- Nigeria. Roma: FAOSTAT, 2012.
DENARP II. Segundo Documento de Estratégia Nacional de Redução da Pobreza. Bissau: MINISTÉRIO DA ECONOMIA, PLANO E INTEGRAÇÃO REGIONAL, 2016.