Heavy Metal Pollution Index of Surface Water and Groundwater Around Tongon Mine (Côte d’Ivoire)
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2019, Pages: 103-111
Received: Oct. 1, 2019;
Accepted: Oct. 28, 2019;
Published: Nov. 12, 2019
Views 146 Downloads 61
Kagbagnan Kone, Laboratoire Des Procédés Industriels de Synthèse de L’environnement et Des Energies Nouvelles, Institut National Polytechniques Félix Houphouët Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire
Kouakou Adjoumani Rodrigue, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Physico-chimie du Milieu UFR Sciences Fondamentales et Appliquées, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Konan Edmond Kouassi, Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Physico-chimie du Milieu UFR Sciences Fondamentales et Appliquées, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Kopoin Adouby, Laboratoire Des Procédés Industriels de Synthèse de L’environnement et Des Energies Nouvelles, Institut National Polytechniques Félix Houphouët Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire
Water is a valued resource, which is increasingly being threatened by mining activity. Monitoring of surface water and groundwater quality around gold mine is essential in terms of heavy metals and toxic substances. The northern zone of Côte d’Ivoire where located Tongon is a highly mineralised zone, with extensive mining of gold. The quality of water resources in this region may be affected by the activity of the Tongon mine, which is the main gold mine in the region. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of heavy metals and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) in surface water and groundwater around Tongon mine. The concentrations of As, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Mn have been evaluated at 21 surface water and 16 groundwater sampling stations. The concentration of these metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for heavy metal pollution indexing. The concentrations of As, Pb, Cr, Cu and Mn in surface water were found to be above the highest desirable limit of WHO drinking water standard with mean concentrations of 5.761, 0.016, 0.178, 2.939, and 0.684 mg/L, respectively. Excepted As (2.95 mg/L) and Mn (0.67 mg/L), the metal concentrations in groundwater were well below the permissible limits of WHO drinking water standard. The Heavy Metal Pollution Index was used to evaluate surface water and groundwater quality. The results showed that, in the groundwater samples, HPI values (48.56-72.49) were less than 100, indicating a low-level heavy metal. Concerning surface water, HPI values of Poungbe River are well below the index limit of 100, which suggest that it is generally no contaminated with respect to these metals. The mining activity of Tongon is carried out while protecting water quality against heavy metals. The quality of water resources in the area must be regularly monitored to avoid any dramatic situation.
Kouakou Adjoumani Rodrigue,
Konan Edmond Kouassi,
Heavy Metal Pollution Index of Surface Water and Groundwater Around Tongon Mine (Côte d’Ivoire), International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 7, No. 5,
2019, pp. 103-111.
Dorleku, M. K., Nukpezah, D., Carboo, D. Effects of Small-scale Gold Mining on Heavy Metal Levels in Groundwater in the Lower Pra Basin of Ghana. Applied Water Science. Vol. 8, No 5, 2018, p. 126.
Bempah, C. K., & Ewusi, A. Heavy Metals Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment around Obuasi Gold Mine in Ghana. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 188, No 5, 2016, p. 261.
Kouakou Adjoumani Rodrigue, N., Yao, B. K., Trokourey, A., & Adouby, K. Heavy Metals in Sediments and Their Transfer to Edible Mollusc. Journal of Applied Sciences. Vol. 16, No. 11, 2016, pp. 534-541.
Rodrigue, K. A., Yao, B., Trokourey, A., & Kopoin, A. Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediments of the Vridi Canal (Côte d’Ivoire). Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. Vol. 4, No. 10, 2016, p. 65.
Ning, L., Liyuan, Y., Jirui, D., & Xugui, P. Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Water of Linglong Gold Mining Area, China. Procedia Environmental Sciences. Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 914-917.
Vetrimurugan, E., Brindha, K., Elango, L., & Ndwandwe, O. M. Human Exposure Risk to Heavy Metals Through Groundwater Used for Drinking in an Intensively Irrigated River Delta. Applied Water Science. Vol. 7, No 6, 2017, pp. 3267-3280.
El-Hamid, H. T. A., & Hegazy, T. A. Evaluation of Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of New Damietta, Egypt. MOJ Ecology Environmental Science. Vol. 2, No 6, 2017, p. 00045.
Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B. B., & Beeregowda, K. N. Toxicity, Mechanism and Health Effects of Some Heavy Metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology. Vol. 7, No 2, 2014, pp. 60-72.
Prasad, B., Kumari, P., Bano, S., & Kumari, S. Ground Water Quality Evaluation near Mining Area and Development of Heavy Metal Pollution Index. Applied Water Science. Vol. 4, No 1, 2014, pp. 11-17.
FAIR LINKS 2013: Rapport de l’Administrateur indépendant de l’Initiative pour la Transparence des Industries Extractives (ITIE) pour les revenus de l’année 2011, Côte d’Ivoire. https://eiti.org/sites/default/files/documents/Cote_dIvoire/CAC75-Rapport-de-Validation-ITIE-Cote-d%27Ivoire-2013-FR.pdf.
Koffi, Y. A., Ahoussi, K. E., Kouassi, M. A., & Biemi, J. (2014). Ressources minières, pétrolières et gazières de la Côte d’Ivoire et problématique de la pollution des ressources en eau et des inondations. International Journal of Tropical Ecology and Geography. Vol. 38, no 1, 2014 p. 119-136.
APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. APHA, Washington, D. C., U. S. A, 2002.
Saleh, H. N., Panahande, M., Yousefi, M., Asghari, F. B., Conti, G. O., Talaee, E., & Mohammadi, A. A. Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Groundwater Wells in Neyshabur Plain, Iran. Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 190, No 1, 2019, pp. 251-261.
Mativenga, P. T., & Marnewick, A. (2018). Water Quality in a Mining And Water-Stressed Region. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 171, 2018, pp. 446-456.
Tiwari, A. K., De Maio, M., Singh, P. K., & Mahato, M. K. (2015). Evaluation of Surface Water Quality by Using GIS and a Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) Model in a Coal Mining Area, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 95, No 3, 2015, pp. 304-310.
Naminata, S., Kwa-Koffi, K. E., Marcel, K. A., & Marcellin, Y. K. Assessment and Impact of Leachate Generated by the Landfill City in Abidjan on the Quality of Ground Water and Surface Water (M’Badon Bay, Côte d’Ivoire). Journal of Water Resource and Protection. Vol. 10, No. 3, 2018, pp. 145-165.
Bakary, I., Yao, K. M., Etchian, O. A., Soro, M. B., Trokourey, A., & Bokra, Y. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary. Environmental monitoring and assessment. Vol. 187, No. 12, 2015, p. 762.
Coulibaly, S., Atse, B. C., Koffi, K. M., Sylla, S., & Konan, K. J. Seasonal accumulations of some heavy metal in water, sediment and tissues of black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron from Biétri Bay in Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. Vol. 88, No. 4, 2012, pp. 571-576.