Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Water of Elelenwo River, Rivers State, Niger Delta Nigeria
The incidence of river pollution is a common place all over the world. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) presence in the environment is on the increase. Water samples collected from Elelenwo River were analyzed for PAHs concentrations. The analysis was achieved after extraction with dichloromethane and n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. Thereafter, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to separate and identify the different components of PAHs in the surface water samples. The result obtained showed the presence of 13 priority PAHs from the river. Three priority PAHs (fluorene, benzo (a) anthracene and chrysene) were not detected from any of the stations examined. Different classifications showed that the mean value for 2-3, 4, 5 and 6 ring members were 0.067±0.038, 0.013±0.005, 0.08±0.00 and 0.067±0.009 mg/L respectively. Thus indicating that the occurrence and abundance of the ring sizes were in the order of 5 > 6 + 2-3 > 4. Diagnostic ratio for origin identification in the river showed only pyrogenic source of contamination, thus implication human influence on the origin of the PAHs in the river water. Authorities involved with administration, management and enforcement of contaminant / pollutant discharge should channel their efforts to curb the incidence of outburst of PAHs pollution.
Edori Onisogen Simeon,
Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Water of Elelenwo River, Rivers State, Niger Delta Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2020, pp. 23-26.
Kaﬁlzadeh, F. (2015). Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments of the Soltan Abad River, Iran. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 41: 221- 231.
Wania, F. and Mackay, D. (1996). Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Science and Technology, 30: 390–396.
Edokpayi, J. N., Odiyo, J. O., Popoola, E. O. and Msagati, M. A. T. (2016). Determination and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13 (4): 387-349.
Bayoumi, R. A. (2009). Bacterial bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil contaminated soil. Journal of Applied Science Research, 5 (2): 197–211.
Nasr, I. N., Arief, M. H., Abdel-Aleem, A. H. and Malhat, F. M. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic environment at El Menoﬁya Governorate, Egypt. Journal Applied Science Research, 6 (1), 13–21.
Nikolaou, A., Kostopoulou, M., Lofrano, G., Meric, S. (2009). Determination of PAHs in marine sediments: analytical methods and environmental concerns. Global NEST Journal. 11 (4), 391–405.
Rhea, D. T., Gale, R. W., Orazio, C. E., Peterman, P. H., Harper, D. D. and Farag, A. M. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment, and snow, from lakes in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Reston, VA: United States Geological Survey; 29 p.
Ekpete, O. A., Edori, O. S. and Iyama, W. A. (2019). Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Selected Dumpsites Within Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, 21 (4): DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2019.21.556066.
Qiu, Y. W., Zhang, G., Liu, G.-Q., Guo, L.-L., Li, X.-D., Wai, O. (2009). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column and sediment core of Deep Bay, South China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83 (1): 60-66.
Edori, O. S. and Iyama, W. A. (2019). Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water at Point of Effluent Discharge into the New Calabar River, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 9 (6): 343-349.
Yan, W., Chi, J., Wang, Z., Huang, W., Zhang, G. (2009). Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Daya Bay, South China. Environmental Pollution, 157 (6): 1823–1830.
Helfrich, J. and Armstrong, D. E. (1986). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 12 (3), 192–199.
APHA, (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20 edition publishers: American Public Health Association; American Water Works Association; Water Environment Federation
Ilechukwu, I., Osuji, L. C. and Onyema, M. O. (2016). Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils within hot mixed asphalt (HMA) plant vicinities. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 41 (2): 10-16.
Nekhavhambe, T. J., Van Ree, T. and Fatoki, O. S. (2014). Determination and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers, surface runoff, and sediments in and around Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water SA, 40: 415–424.
Joil, J. C., Henry, X. C., Marilda, F. and Gisele, M. H. (2012). Persistent toxic substances in surface water of Todos Os Santos Bay, Brazil. Resources and Environment, 2 (4): 141-149
Miller, J. S. and Olejnik, D. (2001). Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. Water Research, 35 (1): 233-243.
Obiakor, M. O., Okonkwo, J. C., Ezeonyejiaku, C. D. and Okonkwo, C. N. (2014). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Freshwater Media: Factorial Effects and Human Dietary Exposure Risk Assessment. Resources and Environment, 4 (6): 247-259.
Kafilzadeh, F., Shiva, A. H. and Malekpour, R. (2011). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water and Sediments of the Kor River, Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10 (1): 1-7.
Obayori, O. S. and L. B. Salam, I. B. (2010). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Role of plasmids. Scientific Research and Essays, 5 (25): 4093-4106.
Djomo, J. E., Garrigues P. and Narbonne, J. F. (1996). Uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sediment by the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15: 1177-1181
Andrea S. N., Gábor, S. and István, V. (2012). Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water of the Hungarian upper section of the Danube River. Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica, 11 (1): 27-35.
Olayinka, O. O., Adewusi, A. A., Olujimi, O. O. and Aladesida, A. A. (2018). Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and estimated human health risk of water samples around Atlas Cove, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution, 8 (20): 1- 12.