Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature from Earth Observation Satellites for Gas Flaring Sites in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2020, Pages: 59-74
Received: Jan. 31, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 3, 2020; Published: Aug. 27, 2020
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Authors
Barnabas Morakinyo, Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria; School of Marine Science & Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK; Pixalytics Ltd, 1 Davy Rd, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, UK; ARGANS Ltd, 1 Davy Rd, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, UK
Samantha Lavender, School of Marine Science & Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK; Pixalytics Ltd, 1 Davy Rd, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, UK
Victor Abbott, School of Marine Science & Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
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Abstract
This research investigates the recording of Land Surface Temperature (LST) by Earth Observation (EO) Satellites for four gas flaring sites in Rivers State, Nigeria. Six Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Eleven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) from 17 January 1986 to 08 March 2013 with < 5% cloud contamination were considered. All the sites are located within a single Landsat scene (Path 188, Row 057). Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) method and Atmospheric Correction Parameter (ATMCORR) Calculator were used to obtain atmospheric correction effects parameters for multispectral and thermal bands [Upwelling radiance (Lu), downwelling radiance (Ld) and transmittance (τ)] of Landsat data respectively. The emissivity (ε) for each site is estimated by using standard values for determined land surface cover from Look Up Table (LUT). The correction obtained from DOS method was applied to the computed reflectance to get the atmospherically corrected reflectance that was used for the classification of land cover. The Lu, Ld and τ obtained were applied to the calibrated at-sensor radiance band 6 (high gain) data to compute the surface-leaving radiance (Lλ) with the εvalues obtained for each site. The Planck equation was inverted using the calibration constants to derive LST. Six range of LST values were retrieved for each flaring site, with Bonny Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant recorded the highest LST (345.0 K) and Umudioga Flow Station with the lowest (293.0 K). LST retrieved from both sensors for the flare hotspots are the highest values compared to other locations within the processing sites, which was clearly shown through Geospatial Information System (GIS) spatial analysis and the transects plots. Furthermore, the closer is the distance to the flare, the higher is the temperature and vice versa. Based on these results, it can be concluded that satellite based sensors, such as Landsat TM and ETM+, have the ability to record LST at gas flaring sites in the Niger Delta.
Keywords
Retrieval, Earth Observation (EO) Satellites, Gas Flaring, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Niger Delta
To cite this article
Barnabas Morakinyo, Samantha Lavender, Victor Abbott, Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature from Earth Observation Satellites for Gas Flaring Sites in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 59-74. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20200803.13
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Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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