Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water Around an Aluminium Smelter Plant (A Case Study) in Angul–Talcher Industrial Belt, Odisha, India
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2016, Pages: 1-5
Received: Nov. 15, 2015;
Accepted: Dec. 4, 2015;
Published: Dec. 30, 2015
Views 3747 Downloads 112
Allian Majhi, Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Denkanal, Odisha, India
Subhra Keshari Biswal, Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Denkanal, Odisha, India
Kedar Mohapatra, Department of Chemistry, Gandhi Institute of Technological Advancement, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Fluoride is the naturally-occurring stable form of the gaseous element fluorine (F). Fluoride is among the top 15 most abundant components on the Earth’s crust  and is naturally found in very small amounts in most aquifers in India . An aquifer is an underground unit of saturated earth materials that can provide usable quantities of ground water to a well . This paper gives the result of fluoride measurement in ground water around a major Aluminium smelter plant in India. The concentration of different water quality parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, bicarbonate, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, total hardness, total dissolved salts, calcium and magnesium are estimated along with fluoride in ground water. Over 216 water samples are taken for analysis for a period of 12 months. The paper also reports the result of correlation coefficient between different water quality parameters.
Subhra Keshari Biswal,
Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water Around an Aluminium Smelter Plant (A Case Study) in Angul–Talcher Industrial Belt, Odisha, India, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2016, pp. 1-5.
BIS, Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water Quality, IS – 10500, 1983.
Choubisa, S. L. et. al., “Fluoride content in domestic water sources of Dungarpur Dist. Of Rajasthan”. Indian. J. Environ. Health. 37 (3), 154 – 160, 1995.
Choubisa, S.L. et. al., “Prevalence of flurosis in some villages of Dungarpur Dist. Of Rajasthan”. Indian. J. Environ. Health. 38 (2), 119-126, 1995.
Dean, H. T. and Elove. E., “Facts about flourosis”, Engineering News Record, 120, April, 1939.
Epa.ohio.gov.gwqcp.fluoride_factsheet, Fluoride in Ohio’s Ground water, Fact Sheet 2012-01, Series on Ohio’s Ground water Quality, March 2012.
Featherstone J. D., “Dental caries: a dynamic disease process”. Aust. Dent. J 5, 2008.
Floyd DeEds, Fluorine in relation to bone and tooth development, The journal of the American Dental Association(JADA), Volume 23, 563, April 1936.
“Fluorides are general protoplasmic poisions” The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Editorial, Sept 18, 1943.
Geology and mineral Recourses of Odisha-Odisha Minerals, orissaminerals.gov.in.
Gorai Bipra, Jana R.K. and Premchand, Reduction of Emission from Aluminium Indusrtries and Cleaner Technology, Enviornmental & Waste Mangement, 129-138, eprints.nmlindia.org.
Gupta, S. C et. al. “The character of ground water in Nagpur dist, Rajasthan” Indian. J. Environ. Health. 33, 341-348, 1991.
Gupta. S. C. Rathore, G. S. and Doshi, C. S., “Fluoride distribution in ground water of south eastern Rajasthan”, Indian. J. Environ. Health. 35 (2) 97 – 109, 1993.
Gupta S, Banerjee S, Saha R, Datta JK, Mondal N Fluoride geochemistry of groundwater in nalhati-1 block of the birbhum district, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, Research report Fluoride 39 (4) 318–320, October-December 2006.
Kumar Manoj and Puri Avinash, A review of permissible limit of drinking water, Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Medknow publications, Jan-Aprl, 16(1), 40-44, 2012.
Kumaran. P, Bhargava G. N and Bhakuni T. S, Fluorides in groundwater and endemic fluorosis in Rajasthan, Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 13, pp. 316-324. 1971.
Meenakshi, Maheshwari RC, Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Removal, Journal of Hazard Mater, 137(1): 456-63, September 1, 2006.
Mishra. P. C, Meher Kumarmani, Bhosagar Dullav and Pradhan K., Fluoride distribution in different environmental segments at Hirakud Orissa (India), African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 3 (9), pp. 260-264, September, 2009.
Shrott, N. E., C. G. and Raghavachari, T. N. S., Endemic flurosis in Nellore district of south India, IndiaMed. Gazatte, 72, 1937.
Simpson, A., Shaw, L. and Smith, A. J. The bio-availability of fluoride from black tea. Journal of Dentistry, 29(1), 15–21. 2001.
Standard methods of examination of water and waste water, American. Public. Health. Association (APHA), Washington, 1991.
Stephen Peckham and Niyi Awofeso, Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention The Scientific World Journal, Volume2014, 2014, ArticleID293019, 10pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/293019.
Thergaonkar, v. p. and Bhargava, R. K., “Water quality and incidence of flurosis in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan preliminary obs”, Indian. J. Environ. Health. 16 (2) 68 – 180, 1974.
UNICEF, 1999. States of the Art Report on the Extent of Fluoride in Drinking Water and the Resulting Endemicity in India. Report by Fluorosis and Rural Development Foundation for UNICEF, New Delhi.
Venkata Chalam Mr, and Jebanesan A, Indian journal of Environmental Protection 8 (10): 734-738, 1998.
WHO, Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, vol. 2, 1984.