Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices from Exposures to Background Ionizing Radiation Measurements in South-South Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 40-47
Received: Aug. 5, 2019;
Accepted: Aug. 22, 2019;
Published: Sep. 5, 2019
Views 91 Downloads 30
Godwin Ekong, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Abuja, Nigeria; Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Timothy Akpa, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Abuja, Nigeria; Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Ibrahim Umaru, Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Williams Lumbi, Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Mbet Akpanowo, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Abuja, Nigeria; Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Nsikak Benson, Department of Chemistry, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
Radioactivity in the environment from sources of natural and human activities resulting in planned, emergency and existing exposure to human population, environment and other biota has led to growing apprehensions in Nigeria and the world. The existing exposure situations mainly from natural radionuclides, present in the earth crust from creation emits background ionizing radiation leading to gamma dose exposures. The objective of this study was to assess the background ionizing radiation and associated radiological hazard indices in Itu, Nigeria located at 5010’0” N 7059’0” E, and establish an eco-radiological baseline data prior to the construction of any nuclear fission reaction facility in the area. A systematic random method of measurement was employed within demarcated monitoring zones of entire geological map of Itu, Nigeria. The global positioning system finder (GARMIN Etrex 10) was used for data point location, while RDS-31S/R Multi-purpose survey meter was used for dose rate measurement. The background ionizing radiation measurement obtained ranged from 0.041 ± 0.002 - 0.045 ± 0.002 µSv/hr with overall mean of 0.042 ± 002 µSv/hr, which was lower than the world mean of 0.2 µSv/hr. Radiological hazard indices arising from the background ionizing radiation measurement were also evaluated. The mean estimated Gamma Dose Rate was 9.312 nGy/hr, the terrestrial outdoor Annual Effective Dose Rate arising from gamma was 6.83 mSv/yr, that of indoor was 21.85 mSv/yr and Excess Life Cancer Risk was 0.05 × 10-3. The mean evaluated radiological hazard indices were found to be below admissible limits, and thus poses no significant radiological health threat to the populace. Therefore, the assessment demonstrates that there is no elevated level of dose rate, which is makes it safe for human habitation, but care should be taken to avoid increase radiation level from human activities. It is recommended that constant radiological monitoring be encourage, and the data considered as radiological baseline in Itu, Nigeria.
Assessment of Radiological Hazard Indices from Exposures to Background Ionizing Radiation Measurements in South-South Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2019, pp. 40-47.
Mikhailovskaya, L. N.; Modorov, M. V.; Pozolotina, V. N.; Antonova, E. V. Heterogeneity of soil contamination by 90Sr and its absorption by herbaceous plants in the East Ural Radioactive Trace area, Science of the Total Environment. 2019, 651 Part2, 2345-2353.
Ni, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Tagami, K.; Guo, Q.; Uchida, S.; Tsukada, H. The transfer of fallout plutonium from paddy soil to rice: A field study in Japan, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2019, 196, 22-28, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.10.010.
Andoh, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kanno, T.; Saito, K. Measurement of ambient dose equivalent rates by walk survey around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using KURAMA-II until 2016, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2018, 190–191, 111-121, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.09.010.
Giwa, K. W.; Osahon, O. D.; Amodu, F. R.; Tahiru, T. I.; Ogunsanwo, F. O. Radiometric analysis and spatial distribution of radionuclides with-in the terrestrial environment of South-Western Nigeria using ERICA tool, Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, 2018, 10, 419-426, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2018.10.002.
Andoh, M.; Matsuda, N.; Saito, K. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates owing to natural radioactive nuclides in eastern Japan by car-borne surveys using KURAMA–II, Trans. Atom. Energy Soc. Jpn. 2017, 16, 63-80.
Choi, G.-S.; Kim, H.-R.; Han, M.-H. An investigation into radiation levels associated with dismantling the Korea research reactor, Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 2010, 42, 468-473.
Lee, U-J.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, H. R. Radioactive iodine analysis in environmental samples around nuclear facilities and sewage treatment plants, Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 2018, 50, 1355-1363, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2018.07.017.
Sohrabi, M.; Parsouzi, Z.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshy, C.; Ghasemi, M. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant, Ann. Nucl. Energy, 2013, 55, 351-358, doi: 10.1016/j.anucene.2012.12.002.
UNEP. Radiation Effects and Sources: What is Radiation? What does Radiation do to us? Where does radiation come from? New York, 2016, Available at: https://doi.org/10.18356/b1749f17-en.
Emanuele, K.; Lin, Z.; Healey, S.; Shareef, A. R.; Regan, P. Isotopic analysis of plutonium in foods by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Appl. Radiat. Isot., 2017, 126, 40-43 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.01.043.
Mikhailovskaya, L. N.; Pozolotina, V. N.; Antonova, E. V. Accumulation of 90Sr by plants of different taxonomic groups from the soils at the East Ural Radioactive Trace. In: Gupta, D. K. and Walther, C. (Eds.), Behaviour of Strontium in Plants and the Environment, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2018, pp. 61-73.
Sokolik, G. A.; Ovsiannikova, S. V.; Ivanova, T. G.; Leinova, S. L. Soil–plant transfer of plutonium and americium in contaminated regions of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe, Environ. Int. 2004, 30, 939-947.
Wang, Z. T.; Zheng, J.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. Newly derived transfer factors for Th, Am, Pu, and Cl since publication of IAEA TRS No. 472: A review, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 2015, 306, 11-20.
Martínez, J.; Peñalver, A.; Baciu, T.; Artigues, M.; Danús, M.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F. Presence of artificial radionuclides in samples from potable water and wastewater treatment plants, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2018, 192, 187-193, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.06.024.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Radiation Protection and Safety of Radioactive Source, International Basic Safety Standard, IAEA, Vienna, Austria. General Safety Requirements Part 3, 2014, 1-110.
Wrixon, A. D. New International Committee of Radiation Protection Recommendations, Journal of Radiological Protection, 2008, 28, 161-168.
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Application of the Commission’s Recommendation to the protection of people in Emergency Exposure Situation, 2007, 39, 5-12.
Mulas, A.; Camacho, A.; Serrano, I.; Montes, S.; Devesa, R.; Duch, M. A. Natural and artificial radionuclides in sludge, sand, granular activated carbon and reverse osmosis brine from a metropolitan drinking water treatment plant, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2017, 177, 233-240, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.07.001.
Fonollosa, E.; Nieto, A.; Peñalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F. Presence of radionuclides in sludge from conventional drinking water treatment plants. A review. J. Environ. Radioact., 2014, 141C, 24-31, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.11.017.
Mamikhin, S. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Paramonova, T. A.; Shamshurina, E. N.; Ivanov, M. M. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils of the Lokna River floodplain (Tula oblast) long after the Chernobyl accident and its simulation, Eurasian Soil Science. 2016, 49 (12), 1432-1442. doi: 10.1134/S1064229316120103.
Fujii, M.; Ono, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Miyamoto, M. The role of autochthonous organic matter in radioactive cesium accumulation to riverine fine sediments, Water Research, 2018, 137, 18-27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.063.
Gerzabek, M. H. (2011). Short, medium and long-term effects of radionuclide contamination after a nuclear accident – lesson learnt in Austria from the Chernobil disaster, Annal Agrar. Sci., 2, 45-50.
Jibiri, N. N.; Farai, I. P.; Ogunlana, A. M. Radioactivity Level of Some Nigerian Rock Samples, Nigeria Journal of Physics, 1999, 11, 220-226.
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (2008). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. New York, USA.
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (2011). Multi-Agency and Site Survey Investigation Manual.
Youdeowei, T. Nigeria signs pact with Russia on nuclear energy. Vanguard Newspaper Online. 2017, Available online: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/11/nigeria-signs-pact-russia-nuclear-energy/ (Accessed on November 21, 2018).
Anuforo, E.; Onyedika, U. N. Nigeria Russia okay pact to build nuclear plants in Kogi, Akwa Ibom States, 2016, Guardian Newspaper. Available online https://guardian.ng/news/nigeria-russia-okay-pact-to-build-nuclear-plants-in-kogi-akwa-ibom/ (Accessed on November 21, 2018).
Ayoade, B. O. Adaptation to climate change in agriculture, forestry and fisheries: Perspective framework and priorities, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 1998, pp. 149-155.
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) (2010). Environmental Impact Assessment Guidance Manual – For Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Nuclear Waste Management Plants, Government of India, New Delhi, India. 7-8.
Ezekiel, A. O. (2017). Assessment of excess lifetime cancer risk from gamma radiationlevels in Effurun and Warri city of Delta state, Nigeria. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 11, 367–380.
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 2000, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiations. United. Nations. New York, USA.
Al-Sulaiti, H. Determination of Natural Radioactivity Levels of the State of Qatar Using High-Resolution Gamma‐ray Spectrometry. MPhil to PhD Transfer Report, Department of Physics (University of Surrey), 2009.
International Commission on Radiological Protection (1990). The Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, Annals 21, 1-3.
Taskin H.; Karavus M.; Topuzoghi, P. Ay.; Hindiroglu, S.; Karaha G. Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to the gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2009, 100, 49-53.
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (2000). Exposures from natural radiation sources, Annex B New York, USA.
Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). Establishing Radiological Baseline Data in Nigeria. Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Abuja. NNRA Annual Report of 2016, 96-98.
Etuk S. E.; Essiett A. A.; Agbasi, O. E. Measurement of outdoor ambient radioactive radiation and evaluation of radiation indices and Excess Life Cancer Risk within Uyo, Unity Park, Uyo, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environmental and Earth Science International, 2017, 9 (4), 1-9.
Essiett A. A.; Essien I. E.; Bede M. C. Measurement of Surface Dose Rate of Nuclear Radiation in Coastal Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Physics, 2015, 3 (5), 224-229.
Ramli, A. T.; Aliyu, A. S.; Agba, E. H.; Saleh, M. A. Effective dose from natural background radiation in Keffi and Akwanga towns, Central Nigeria. International Journal of Radiation Research, 2014, 12 (1), 47-52.
Alkasim, A.; Muhammad, T. B.; Ali, A.; Elvis, G. Measurement of Gamma Radiation from Some Selected Refuse Dumpsites in Yola Metropolis, North – Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Physics, 2017, 9 (5), 13-17.
Adewale, O. O.; Tubosun, I. A.; Ojo, J. O. Assessment Terrestrial Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in soil and mine tailings in Awo and Ede, Osun-State, South West Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science, 2015, 17 (1), 199-209.
Osimobi, J. C.; Agbalagba, E. O.; Avwiri, G. O.; Ononugbo, C. P.; GIS Mapping and Background Ionizing Radiation (BIR) Assessment of Solid Mineral Mining Sites in Enugu State, Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 2015, 2 (10), 1-9.
Ekong, G. B.; Sambo, I.; Sayaidi, S. Determination of Radionuclides Surface Concentration and Radiation level in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Modern Environmental Science and Engineering Journal, 2016, 2 (1), 757-764.