Germination and Root Nodule Formation of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in Ridomil and Chlorpyriphos Treated Soil
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2015, Pages: 17-22
Received: Dec. 19, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 27, 2014; Published: Jan. 14, 2015
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Authors
Ibiang Young Bassey, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria
Ekanem Bassey Effiong, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria; Department of Science Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua, PMB 1200, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria
Usanga Daniel Archibong, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria
Williams Uduak Ita, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria
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Abstract
Germination and root nodule formation of soybean (Glycine max) was evaluated in soil treated with Ridomil (R), Chlorpyriphos (CH), and a Combination of both (COM); using a completely randomized design, and a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Factor 1 was the pesticide type with 3 levels - R, CH, and COM; while factor 2 was the contamination rate (v/wt) with 3 levels - 0% (control), 2%, and 4%. Aqueous pesticides preparations (as recommended by manufacturers) were applied once, before seeds were planted. More than Ridomil and Combination, significantly (P<0.05) diminished percentage germination due to Chlorpyriphos was observed at 2, 3, and 4 weeks post application. The control had significantly higher germination than 2% and 4% groups, up until the 5th week. The Chlorpyriphos and pesticide Combination groups both had significantly lower root nodule number/plant, than Ridomil. Root nodule number/plant, and nodule biomass/plant were significantly reduced due to pesticide stress at 2% and 4%. Pesticides application at 2% and 4% negatively affected germination and root nodule formation; but there was no indication of an enhanced effect due to pesticides combination.
Keywords
Chlorpyriphos, Ridomil, Pesticide Interaction, Toxicity, Germination, Root Nodule, Soybean
To cite this article
Ibiang Young Bassey, Ekanem Bassey Effiong, Usanga Daniel Archibong, Williams Uduak Ita, Germination and Root Nodule Formation of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in Ridomil and Chlorpyriphos Treated Soil, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 17-22. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20150401.12
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