Community Based Sewage Treatment through Hybrid Constructed Wetlands System for Improved Heath & Hygiene and for Enhanced Agriculture Productivity / Livelihood Generation in Rural Water Scarce Environments-Pakistan
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2015, Pages: 45-54
Received: Dec. 31, 2014; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2015; Published: Feb. 6, 2015
Views 3239      Downloads 141
Col Islam-ul-Haque, Chairman Eco-Logical Sustainability Through Environment Protection Services, Inc, (Eco-STEPS), Islamabad, Pakistan
Asim Saleem, Country WASH advisor, Plan International Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
Article Tools
Follow on us
World over, fresh water scarcity problems are growing in scope & complexity to multiple factors, like population growth, climatic impacts, excessive water uses pattern in agriculture. A substantial quantum of treated wastewater , can be made available through constructed wetlands, which can supplement the fresh water scarcity. Almost, 80 % of the total generated raw sewage is being discharged into water bodies or being used for agriculture purposes, specially for vegetable farming, which contributes towards fresh water sources and food chain contamination. Centralized mechanical types of wastewater treatment plants are in use which is capital and recurring costs intensive. Resultantly, due to lack of sufficient recurring finances and energy shortages, these sewage treatment plants become non-operational and un-manageable. Moreover, huge centralized sewage treatment plants are difficult to manage due to longer chain of wastewater collection system and inflexibility of reuse of treated water in the areas of its generation. Therefore, keeping in view these obvious impediments, it was envisaged to plan & implement community based constructed wetlands system for sewage treatment, based on bio and phyto-remediation processes at village Chattal, district Chakwal (an arid area) which is functioning well and being sustained from selling the treated water to farmers and harvesting the various aquatic plants. Temporal analysis was carried out for verification of treatment system efficiency, whereby, monthly wastewater samples were collected at Inlet point (treated water reservoir) and got analyzed for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) from PCRWR-Islamabad. Analysis report showed significant reduction of COD & BOD i.e. 86.1% & 91.4% respectively which are under permissible limits of Pak-EPA. Aesthetic value of treated water is remarkably improved after treatment as turbidity reduced from 15 NTU to 2 NTU. Detailed Health survey was carried out at village Chattal, to ascertain, the intervention efficiency. The result showed significant reduction in diarrheal & Hepatitis diseases i.e. 92.5% & 40% respectively and substantial improvements was observed in socio-economic, biodiversity and health & environment conditions of the rural population of village Chattal. Pakistan- the study area. This model will prove to be equally good in the rural environments of developing countries, especially in South Asia and Africa.
Constructed Wetlands, Contamination, Community Based, Capital Cost, Investment, Reuse, Wastewater, Sewage Treatment
To cite this article
Col Islam-ul-Haque, Asim Saleem, Community Based Sewage Treatment through Hybrid Constructed Wetlands System for Improved Heath & Hygiene and for Enhanced Agriculture Productivity / Livelihood Generation in Rural Water Scarce Environments-Pakistan, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 45-54. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20150401.17
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (Fifth Monitoring Report 2005-06) June 2007, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), E‐mail: Website:
Pakistan Strategic Country Environmental Assessment, South Asia Environment and Social Development Unit, Document of the World Bank October, 2006.
Pakistan Economic Survey 2011-12, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan Islamabad.
Pakistan’s Water at Risk, Water and Health related issues in Pakistan & Key Recommendations, Freshwater & Toxics Programme, WWF – Pakistan, Published 2007 by WWF – Pakistan.
PuR Water Purification Reaches Pakistan, United States Agency for International Development USAID Report,
(Krishna Lal Shrestha, 2008). Decentralised waste water management using constructed wetlands in Nepal.
Bhushan Tuladhar, environment public health organization, Decentralised wastewater management using constructed wetlands.
Jan Vymazal, Water 2010, 2, 530-549; doi:10.3390/w2030530- Review, Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186