American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 292-299
Received: Oct. 8, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 16, 2015;
Published: Nov. 16, 2015
Views 4523 Downloads 95
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
Ragini Singh, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
The chlorinated phenols are widely used in chemical industries for the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, etc. However, due to consistent use they create hazards to the environment. This study was designed to use an alternative method i.e. biofield energy treatment and analyse its impact on the physicochemical properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which are the important factors related to its degradation. The 2,4-DCP sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy and analyzed as compared to the untreated 2,4-DCP sample (control) using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed up to 19.4% alteration in the lattice parameters along with approximately 1.8% alteration in the molecular weight, unit cell volume and density of the treated sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was increased and found as 215.24 nm as compared to 84.08 nm in the control sample. Besides, the thermal study results showed an alteration in the thermal stability profile of the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed the decrease in the thermal decomposition temperature from 137.9°C (control) to 131.94°C in the treated sample along with 92.19% alteration in the quantity of heat absorbed during the process. Moreover, the thermogravimetric analysis showed that onset temperature of degradation was decreased, while the percent weight loss of the sample was increased from 59.12% to 71.74% in the treated sample as compared to the control. However, the Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopic studies did not show any significant alteration in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control. Hence, the overall studies revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the 2,4-DCP sample.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Biofield Treated 2,4-Dichlorophenol, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2015, pp. 292-299.
Pera-Titus M, Garcia-Molina V, Banos MA, Gimenez J, Esplugas S (2004) Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: A general review. Appl Catal B Environ 47: 219-256.
Sabhi S, Kiwi J (2001) Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by immobilized iron catalysts. Water Res 35: 1994-2002.
Sponza DT, Ulukoy A (2008) Kinetic of carbonaceous substrate in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4 DCP). J Environ Manage 86: 121-131.
Temel NK, Sokmen M (2011) New catalyst systems for the degradation of chlorophenols. Desalination 281: 209-214.
Hendricks NR, Waryo TT, Arotiba O, Jahed N, Baker PGL, et al. (2009) Microsomal cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) nanobiosensor for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol-an endocrine disruptor compound. Electrochim Acta 54: 1925-1931.
Rathore HS, Nollet LML (2012) Pesticides: Evaluation of environmental pollution. CRC press, Florida.
Domb AJ, Kost J, Wiseman D (1998) Handbook of biodegradable polymers. CRC Press, Florida.
Shiu WY, Ma KC, Varhanickova D, Mackay D (1994) Chlorophenols and alkylphenols: A review and correlation of environmentally relevant properties and fate in an evaluative environment. Chemosphere 29: 1155-1224.
Lyman WJ, Reehl WF, Rosenblatt DH (1982) Handbook of chemical property estimation methods: Environmental behaviour of organic compounds. McGraw-Hill, Washington, DC.
Altschuh J, Bruggemann R, Santl H, Eichinger G, Piringer OG (1999) Henry’s law constant for a diverse set of organic chemicals: Experimental determination and comparison of estimation methods. Chemosphere 39: 1871-1887.
Gupta SS, Stadler M, Noser CA, Ghosh A, Steinhoff B, et al. (2002) Rapid total destruction of chlorophenols by activated hydrogen peroxide. Science 296: 326-328.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O, et al. (2015) Characterization of physical and structural properties of brass powder after biofield treatment. J Powder Metall Min 4: 134.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Mishra RK, Jana S (2015) Structural and physical properties of biofield treated thymol and menthol. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res 3: 127.
Prakash S, Chowdhury AR, Gupta A (2015) Monitoring the human health by measuring the biofield "aura": An overview. Int J Appl Eng Res 10: 27654-27658.
Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
Mager J, Moore D, Bendl D, Wong B, Rachlin K, et al. (2007) Evaluating biofield treatments in a cell culture model of oxidative stress. Explore 3: 386-390.
Uchida S, Iha T, Yamaoka K, Nitta K, Sugano H (2012) Effect of biofield therapy in the human brain. J Altern Complement Med 18: 875-879.
NIH, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM Basics. Publication 347. [October2008]. Available at: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) An effect of biofield treatment on multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia: A multihost pathogen. J Trop Dis 3: 167.
Nayak G, Altekar N (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
Rudrangi SR, Bhomia R, Trivedi V, Vine GJ, Mitchell JC, et al. (2015) Influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of indomethacin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes. Int J Pharm 479: 381-390.
Muniraju NKC (2012) Crystal and spin structure and their relation to the physical properties in some geometrical and spin spiral multiferroics. Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany.
Sui ML, Lu K (1994) Variation in lattice parameters with grain size of nanophase Ni3P compound. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater 179-180: 541-544.
Linde CD (1994) Physico-chemical properties and environmental fate of pesticides. Environmental monitoring and pest management branch, California.
Hefter GT, Tomkins RPT (2003) The experimental determination of solubilities. Wiley series in solution chemistry. John Wiley and Sons.
Cai XQ, Jin ZM (2014) A hydrogen-bonded three-component complex: bis (dicyclohexylammonium) 2,4-dichlorophenolate 2,4,6-trichlorophenolate 2,4-dichlorophenol. Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem 70: 207-209.
Poletto M, Zattera AJ, Forte MM, Santana RM (2012) Thermal decomposition of wood: Influence of wood components and cellulose crystallite size. Bioresour Technol 109: 148-153.
Sundaraganesan N, Anand B, Dominic Joshua B (2006) FTIR, FT-raman spectra and ab initio DFT vibrational analysis of 2,4-dichloro-6-nitrophenol. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 65: 1053-1062.
Lambert JB (1987) Introduction to organic spectroscopy. Macmillan, New York, USA.
Zhang YZ, Zhang NX, Ren AQ, Zhang J, Dai J, et al. (2010) Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol with bovine serum albumin. J Solution Chem 39: 495-510.
Es’haghi Z (2011) Extraction and determination of three chlorophenols by hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction- Spectrophotometric analysis, and evaluation procedures using mean centering of ratio spectra method. Am J Analyt Chem 2: 1-8.