The Contamination Levels of Water and Sediment from Lake Togo by the Persistent Organic Pollutants (Pops)
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2016, Pages: 20-28
Received: Feb. 29, 2016; Accepted: Mar. 16, 2016; Published: Mar. 29, 2016
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Authors
Gbénonchi Mawussi, Laboratory of Research on Agro-Ressources & Environmental Health, Advanced School of Agronomy, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Lankondjoa Kolani, Laboratory of Research on Agro-Ressources & Environmental Health, Advanced School of Agronomy, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Damien Devault, University of Paris-South, Faculty of Pharmacy, CNRS, Agro Paris Tech, Paris, France
Komla Sanda, Laboratory of Research on Agro-Ressources & Environmental Health, Advanced School of Agronomy, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
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Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the contamination severity of Lake Togo by organochlorinated pesticides historically used in agriculture and in health programs against disease vectors in public health. A total of 48 samples of sediments and 48 samples of water were seasonally collected. For both sediment and water 3 samples per site were collected at 8 sites in the 2014 rainy season and in the 2015 dry season. Water samples were processed using a liquid-liquid method solvent extraction while Soxhlet extraction was used for sediment samples. The sediment and water extractions were cleaned-up and qualitative-quantitative analysis performed on gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Pesticides residue levels in water ranged from < 0.001 to 0.093±0.20 µg l-1 (lindane) in rainy season and from < 0.001 to 0.352±0.07 µg l-1 (dieldrin) in dry season. They were lower than that found in sediment which ranged from < 0.001 to 0.98±0.18 µg kg-1 dry weight (pp′-DDE) in rainy season and from < 0.001 to 2.19±0.31 µg kg-1 dry weight (heptachlor epoxide) in dry season. The concentrations of the organochlorinated residues in water and sediment were higher during the dry season. Except pp′-DDE, pp′-DDD, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, the others pesticide residues concentrations detected in water samples in dry season were above the maximum acceptable concentration of 0.1 µg l-1 for individual pesticides set by the European Union (EU) for the protection of human health. Pesticide contamination level of Lake Togo is therefore, likely to be harmful to human health in dry season.
Keywords
Lake Togo, Water, Sediment, Contamination, Organochlorine Pesticides
To cite this article
Gbénonchi Mawussi, Lankondjoa Kolani, Damien Devault, Komla Sanda, The Contamination Levels of Water and Sediment from Lake Togo by the Persistent Organic Pollutants (Pops), American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2016, pp. 20-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20160502.11
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Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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