Diversity of Vascular and Insects Canopy Epiphytes on Palm Oil in North Sumatra, Indonesia
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 39-49
Received: Mar. 22, 2016; Accepted: Mar. 31, 2016; Published: Apr. 20, 2016
Views 4732      Downloads 130
Fitra Suzanti, Biology Education Study Program, University of Riau, Riau, Indonesia
Retna Astuti Kuswardani, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Medan Area, Medan, Indonesia
Suci Rahayu, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of North Sumatra, Medan, Indonesia
Agus Susanto, Palm Research Center of Marihat, North Sumatra, Indonesia
Article Tools
Follow on us
This paper describes the role of the insect, which is essential for human survival, but still people are not familiar with widely even some people consider insects no meaning or viewed from the downside. Diversity of epiphytes and insects in the canopy of palm oil plantations in North Sumatra assessed by field observations at five locations, namely, Bukit Sentang, Padang Mandarsyah, Ajamu, Sijambu-jambu, and Aek Pancur. Data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative. Based on the results obtained by analysis of the biological diversity of insects that affect the quality and quantity of farm products. In natural ecosystems, generally there has been a stable population of pests and their natural enemies so that the presence of insect pests in cropping is no longer harmful. Thereby, the conditions need to be developed so as to reduce the use of pesticides to control pests in field crops, especially in export-oriented and has high economic value.
Diversity, Vascular Epiphytes, Insects Canopy, Oil Palm Plantations
To cite this article
Fitra Suzanti, Retna Astuti Kuswardani, Suci Rahayu, Agus Susanto, Diversity of Vascular and Insects Canopy Epiphytes on Palm Oil in North Sumatra, Indonesia, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 39-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20160503.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Altieri, M. A. and C. I. Nicholls. (1999). Biodiversity, Ecosystem Function, and Insect Pest Management in Agricultural System, in Biodiversity in Agroecosystems, Eds. W. W. Collins & C. O. Qualset. Lwis Publ. New York. pp. 69-84.
Ginting, K., E. S. Sutarta dan R. Y. Purba, 2004. Pengendalian Gulma Epifit Pada Kelapa Sawit. Warta PPKS, 12 (2-3): 23-27.
Cruz-Ang et al. (2009). The contribution of epiphytes to the abundance and species richness of canopy insects in a Mexican coffee plantation. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 25, 453–463. doi: 10.1017/S0266467409990125.
Brown, S., & Lugo, A. E. (1990). Tropical secondary forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 6(01), 1. doi: 10.1017/s0266467400003989.
Fitzherbert, E. B., M. J. Struebig, A. Morel, F. Danielsen, C. A. Bruhl, P. F. Donald dan B. Phalan. (2008). "How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?" Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 538-45.
Mackinnon, P. J., & Alderton, M. R. (2000). An investigation of the degradation of the plant toxin, ricin, by sodium hypochlorite. Toxicon, 38(2), 287–291. doi: 10.1016/s0041-0101(99)00142-7.
Corley, R. H. V., & Tinker, P. B. (Eds.). (2003). The Oil Palm. doi: 10.1002/978047075097.
Danielsen, F., Beukema, H., Burgess, N., Parish, F., Brühl, C., Donald, P., Fitzherbert, E. (2009). Biofuel plantations on forested lands: Double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6(24). doi: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/242014.
Hanski, I., & Gilpin, M. E. (1997). Preface. Metapopulation Biology, xv–xvi. doi: 10.1016/b978-012323445-2/50001-8.
Li, Q., Moorhead, D. L., DeForest, J. L., Henderson, R., Chen, J., & Jensen, R. (2009). Mixed litter decomposition in a managed Missouri Ozark forest ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(2), 688–694. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.043.
Hietz, P. 1999. Diversity and conservation of epiphytes in a changing environment. Pure Appl. Chem.70:2114. http://uipac.Org/symposia/proceedings/phuket97/hietz. (diakses: 26 Oktober 2013).
Green, N. D. C., Brown, M. D., & Coote, J. H. (2007). Failure of vascular autoregulation in the upper limb with increased +Gz acceleration. Eur J Appl Physiol, 100(6), 621–626. doi: 10.1007/s00421-007-0465-0.
Essandoh, P. K., Armah, F. A., Odoi, J. O., Yawson, D. O. and Afrifa, E. K. A. 2011. Floristic Composition and Abundance of Weeds in an Oil Palm Plantation in Ghana.ARPN. Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science, 6(1).
Zotz, G., & Vollrath, B. (2003). The epiphyte vegetation of the palm Socratea exorrhiza - correlations with tree size, tree age and bryophyte cover. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19(01). doi: 10.1017/s0266467403003092.
Southwood, T. R. E. and Way. M. J. (19700. Ecological background to pest management. in Concepts of Pest Management, pp.7-13. R. L. Rabb & F. E. Guthrie, eds. North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Van Driesche, R. G. & T. S. Bellows Jr. 1996.Biological Control.Chapman and Hall. New York.
Mattson, W. J. J. (1980). Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Reviewof Ecology & Systematics, 11, 119-161.
Lawrence, G. H. M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York.
Sastrapradja, S., J. J. Afriastini, D. Darmedi dan Elizabeth. (1980). Jenis Paku Indonesia. Lembaga Biologi Nasional, Bogor.
Piggott, A. G. (1984). Fern of Malaysia in colour. Tropical Press, ISBN 9677300296. Kualalumpur. Malaysia.
Foster, A. S. and E. M. Gifford, Jr. (1967). Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants. Second Indian Edition.Vaklis, Feffer and Simons Private Ltd. Bombay.
Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. (1974) Aims and methods ofvegetation ecology.John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.Nation, J. L., 2002. Insect physiology and Biochemistry. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Michael, P. (1995). Metode ekologi untuk penyelidikan lading dan laboratorium. Jakarta: UI Press.
Aththorick, T. A., E. S. Siregar dan S. Hartati. 2007. Kekayaan Jenis Makroepifit Di Hutan Telaga Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser (Tngl) KabupatenLangkat. Jurnal Biologi Sumatera, Vol. 2(1): 12–16.
Danielsen, F. and M. Heegaard, 1995. Impact of logging and plantation development onspecies diversity: a case study from Sumatra. Management of tropical forests: towards an integrated perspective, Centre for Development and the Environment, Universityof Oslo.Norway.
Fitzherbert, E. B., M. J. Struebig, A. Morel, F. Danielsen, C. A. Bruhl, P. F. Donald dan B. Phalan. (2008). "How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?" Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23: 538-45.
Benzing, D. H. (2004). Vascular Epiphytes. Forest Canopies, 175–211. doi:10.1016/b978-012457553-0/50014-9.
Nieder, J., dan W. Barthlott. (2001). Epiphytes and their role in the tropical forest canopy. In J. Nieder and W. Barthlott (Eds.).Epiphytes and canopy fauna of the Otonga Rain Forest (Ecuador), vol. 2, pp. 23–86. Results of the Bonn-Quito epiphyte project funded by the Volkswagen Foundation, Bonn, Germany.
Yusuf, F. B., Tan, B. C, and Turner, I. M. (2003). Species Richness of Pteridophytes in Natural Versus Man-Made Lowland Forests in Malaysia and Singapore. Pteridology in The New Millenium. 283-298. Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Ruiz-Cordova, J. P., Toledo-Hernández, V. H., & Flores-Palacios, A. (2014). The effect of substrate abundance in the vertical stratification of bromeliad epiphytes in a tropical dry forest (Mexico). Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 209(8), 375–384. doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2014.06.003.
Johansson, D. (1974). Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West Africanrain forest. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 59: 1–136.
Hietz, P. and U. Hietz-Seifert. (1995). Intra- and interspecific relations within an epiphyte community in a Mexican humid montane forest. Selbyana, 16, 135–140.
Haro-Carrión, X., Lozada, T., Navarrete, H., de Koning, G. H. J. (2009). Conservation of the vascular epiphyte diversity in shade cacao plantations in the Chocó region in northwestern Ecuador. Biotropica, 41: 520–529.
Nadkarni, N. M. (2002). Potential effect of climate change on canopy communities in a tropical cloud forest: An experimental approach. Oecologia, 131: 580-586.
Barthlott, W., V. Schmit-Neuerburg, J. Nieder, dan S. Engwald. (2001). Diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes; A comparison of secondary vegetation and primary montane rain forest in the Venezuelan Andes. Plant Ecology. 152: 145-156.
Krebs, C. J. (1985). Ecology. The Experimental Analisys of Distribution and Abundance. Third Edition.Harper & Row Publisher. New York.
Stuntz, S., C. Ziegler, U. Simon, and G. Zotz. (2002). Diversity and structure of the arthropod fauna within three canopy epiphyte species in central Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 161-176.
Michael, P. 1995. Metode ekologi untuk penyelidikan lading dan laboratorium. Jakarta: UI Press.
Pelawi, A. P. (2009). Indeks Keanekaragaman Jenis Serangga Pada Beberapa Ekosistem di Areal Perkebunan PT. Umbul Mas Wisesa Kabupaten Labuhanbatu. Skripsi. Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan Indonesia.
Haddad, N. M., M. C. Gregory, G. Kevin, H. John, T. David. (2011). Plant Diversity and The Stability of Foodwebs. Ecol. Lett, 14, 42-46.
Mulder, C. P. H., J. Koricheva, K. Huss-Danell, P. Hoegberg, J.Joshi. (1999). Ecol. Lett. 2, 237-246.
Gillison A and Liswanti N. (1999). Impact of oil palm plantations on biodiversity in Jambi, Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research.
Brühl, C. A. and T. Eltz, (2009). Fuelling the crisis: Species loss of ground-dwelling forest ants in oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia (Borneo)."Biodiversity & Conservation.
Oka, I. N., (1995). Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu dan Implementasinya di Indonesia. UGM-Press, Yogyakarta.
Suin, N. M. (1997). Ekologi Hewan Tanah. Bumi Aksara. Bandung.
Padmawathe, R., Qureshi, Q., & Rawat, G. S. (2004). Effects of selective logging on vascular epiphyte diversity in a moist lowland forest of Eastern Himalaya, India. Biological Conservation, 119(1), 81–92. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.10.024.
Larrea, M. L., and Werner, F. A. 2010. Response of vascular epiphyte diversity to different land-use intensities in a neotropicalmontane wet forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 260(11): 1950–1955. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.029.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186