The Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change in Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 69-74
Received: Mar. 6, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 21, 2017;
Published: May 23, 2017
Views 1326 Downloads 80
Alefu Chinasho, Department of Environmental Science, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia
Dalga Yaya, Department of Environmental Science, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia
Samuel Tessema, Department of Environmental Science, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia
The world’s drylands are home to 2 billion people, many of whom depend on natural resources, biodiversity and agro-biodiversity for their livelihoods. The vulnerability of pastoral communities to climate change is higher than those who depend on agriculture (crop production) due to the synergic effect of inadequate health services, inadequate infrastructure, poverty (especially among rural communities), lack of alternative means of income(especially in marginal areas), inadequate public awareness of disease risks, illiteracy, and so on. As a result, this review focuses on the adaptive and mitigation strategies for pastoral communities to climate change and variability in Ethiopia. The objective of this review is to identify different adaptation and mitigation strategies (both traditional and modern) to climate change that should be used in different Pastoral communities of Ethiopia. In other words, it helps those pastoral communities to share the information about applicability and benefits of the new adaptation and mitigation strategies, and/or improve the implementation process of previously existing strategies (measures). Consequently, the loss of human and livestock life, damage of buildings by wind, reduction in production and productivity, extra cost for cure, inappropriate (sudden migration), and disturbance of overall activities of pastoral community can be minimized by sharing the important information about the future occurrence of disasters. The appropriate measures either used by local communities and/or recommended by different researchers after their findings are: keeping or improving animal health, de-stocking and re-stocking livestock depending on weather conditions, keeping the sustainability of livestock feed and water, diversifying livelihood, seasonal migration, using alternate energy sources other than fire wood and charcoal, improving human health (sanitation) and clean water supply, market and infrastructure development and improvement, using integrated natural resource management, and sound policy and Conflict resolution methods.
The Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change in Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2017, pp. 69-74.
Davies, J., Poulsen, L., Schulte-Herbrüggen, B., Mackinnon, K., Crawhall, N., Henwood, W.D., Dudley, N., Smith, J. and Gudka, M, “Conserving Dryland Biodiversity”, XII +84p, 2012.
Kidane Georgis, ”Agricultural and pastoral technologies and practices for climate change adaptation in lowland dryland areas of Ethiopia,” in Proce- High Level Policy Forum 6 – 7, 2014.
Security In Mobility, “Advocating for Safe Movement as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Pastoralists in the Horn and East Africa”, 2010.
Adger, W. N., S. Agrawala, M. M. Q. Mirza, C. Conde, K. O’Brien, J. Pulhin, R. Pulwarty, B. Smit and K. Takahashi, “Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “ M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp717-743, 2007.
Alefu Chinasho(2015). Challenges and Opportunities to the Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change in developing countries: Review. AJSMS. [Online]. 6(2). pp. 34-39. Available: http://www.scihub.org/AJSMS.
Saitabau, H, “Impacts of climate change on the livelihoods of Loita Maasai pastoral community and related indigenous knowledge on adaptation and mitigation”, National museums of Kenya, 2014.
ANRS (Afar National Regional State). “Programme of Plan on Adaptation to Climate Change”, prepared by Technical and Financial Support from Environmental Protection Authority of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2010.
Hurst, M., Jensen, N., Pedersen, S. H., Sharma, A., Zambriski, J. A.”Changing Climate Adaptation Strategies of Boran Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia”, Working Paper No. 15 Cali, Colombia. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), 2012.
Getachew Legese, Aynalem Haile, Tadele Dessie, Nizam Hussein, Sisay Kuma and Rischkowsky, B. “Analysis of small ruminants value chain in Yabello and Shinille Districts, Ethiopia,” in Proce- High Level Policy Forum,6 – 7, 2014.
Abarufa Jatani. “Climate change and variability and its impact on the Livelihood of pastoralists: case study in dire Woreda of Borana zone, Oromia region”,Master thesis, submitted to Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011.
Badege Bishaw, Neufeldt, H., Mowo, J., Abdu Abdelkadir, Muriuki, J., Gemedo Dalle, Tewodros Assefa, Guillozet, K., Habtemariam Kassa, Dawson, I. K., Luedeling, E., and Mbow, C. “Farmers’ Strategies for Adapting to and Mitigating Climate Variability and Change through Agroforestry in Ethiopia and Kenya,” edited by Caryn M. D., Bernart, B., and Dmitriev, A., Forestry Communications Group, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon,2013.
Neely, C., Bunning, S., and Wilkes, A.” Managing dryland pastoral systems: implications for mitigation and adaptation to climate change,” Chapter XIII, Vol.11, 2010.
HPG (Humanitarian Policy Group). “Pastoralism and climate change,” Enabling adaptive capacity, Synthesis Paper, 2009.
SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity). “Pastoralism, Nature Conservation and Development,” A Good Practice Guide, 2010, Montreal, 40 + iii pages.
Natnael Demelash, Lisanework Nigatu and J. J. Sharma. “Composition & diversity of invasive plant species and their socio-economic impacts on livelihoods of pastoralists in the rangelands of Telalak District, Afar National Regional State, Ethiopia,” in Proce- High Level Policy Forum 6 – 7, 2014.
Yohakim, S. N,”Climate change, rangelands and agro-pastoral communities in Tanzania”, 2013.
ATPS (African Technology Policy Studies Network). “The Rationale and Capacity of Pastoral Community Innovative Adaptation to Climate Change in Ethiopia” [Tibebu Solomon], ATPS Research Paper No. 25, 2013.
Halake Dida Gobessa and Tadesse Woldemariam. “The impacts of development interventions on the customary institutions of forest resource management: the case of the Borana Oromo of Southern Ethiopia”, in Proce- High Level Policy Forum 6 – 7, 2014.