American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 6, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 112-119
Received: Aug. 4, 2017;
Accepted: Aug. 18, 2017;
Published: Sep. 13, 2017
Views 2198 Downloads 86
Ibrahim Mehdi, College of Dryland Agriculture, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Lisanework Nigatu, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire-Dawa, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Mengistu, Addis Ababa Urael Branch, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The study was conducted to come across with competitive test pasture species grown in combination with parthenium at varying levels of density under field in factorial experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 plants of either test species grown together with 30, 20 or 10 parthenium other than pure culture of each species with four replications. The species showed a significant degree of difference (P < 0.05) in inhibition efficiency on growth attributes of parthenium. Among the species, C. ciliaris, C. gayana and P. coloratum were strongly competitive (> 50% IE) while D. intortum and L. purpureus were ranked as moderately competitive (< 50% IE) with inhibition efficiency of 59, 68 and 73, 36 and 47% on dry matter biomass at heavier level of density respectively. At medium level of density the species had 39, 52 47, 21 and 25% and 11, 19 18, 9 and 13% IE at lower levels of density respectively. Increasing mixing level from the lower to medium density level their IE increased by 27, 33 and 29% while by 20, 16 and 26% when mixing level increased from medium to heavier level of density respectively. Similarly, at heavier density a reduction of 39, 44 and 52% on height, 30, 41 and 40% on number of tillers and/or branches and 24, 30 and 36% on leaf area of parthenium respectively. At this density, the species had RCC of 2.57, 1.69 and 2.33 and AI of 0.61, 0.52 and 0.68 respectively. Besides, a strong association seen concerning IE and growth attributes of species with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.848, 0.795, 0.549 and 0.413 between dry matter biomass, height, number of tiller and/or branch and leaf area respectively. Therefore, it can be suggested that successful management of parthenium can be achieved through biological approach using competitive pastures species in rangelands and/or other infested locations that believed to be cost effective, environmentally friendly and its sustainability could play a substantial role.
Competitiveness of Selected Pasture Plant Species with Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2017, pp. 112-119.
Alemayehu M., 2004. Rangeland: Biodiversity Concepts, Approaches and the way forward. Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 80p.
Amaha K., 2003. Pastoralism and the need for the future intervention in pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Annual Review on National Dry Land Agriculture Research System, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
SERP (South Eastern Rangelands Development Project), 1995. Parthenium hysterophorus and other weeds in Eastern Hararghe, Ethiopia. SERP Technical report (Draft). 81p.
Tamado T. and P. Milberg, 2000. Weed flora in arable fields of Eastern Ethiopia with emphasis on the occurrence of Parthenium hysterophorus L. J. Weed research, 40:507-521.
Dhileepan, K., 2009. Managing Parthenium Weed across Diverse Landscapes: Prospects and Limitations in the Management of Invasive Weeds, (ed. Inderjit). Springer Netherlands 5: 227-259.
Tamado T., L. Ohlander and P. Milberg, 2002. Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L with grain sorghum: influence of weed density and duration of competition. International Journal of Pest Management, 48: 183-188.
Anonymous, 2009. Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), the State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Brisbane.
Tamado, T. and P. Milberg, 2004. Control of parthenium (P. hysterophorus L) in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in the smallholder farming system in eastern Ethiopia. Weed Technology 18: 100-105.
Joshi, S., 1991. Biological `control of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) by Cassia uniflora Mill (Leguminosae), in Bangalore, India. Tropical Pest Management 37, 182–184.
O'Donnell, C. and S. W. Adkins, 2005. Management of parthenium weed through competitive displacement with beneficial plants. Weed Biology and Management 5: 77-79.
Wardle, D. A., Ahmed, M., K. S. Nichlson, 1991: Allelopathic influence of nodding thistle (Carduus mutans L.) seeds on germination and radicle growth of pasture plants. J. Agric. Res. 34, 185-191.
Sahlemedhin S. and Taye B, 2000. Procedures for Soil and Plant Analysis. National Soil Research center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research organization.
Rejmanek, M., Robinson, G. R. and E. Rejmankova, 1989. Weed-crop competition: experimental designs and models for data analysis. Weed Science 37: 276-284.
Dewit, C. T., 1960. On competition. Verslagen and Landboukundige Onderzoekingen. The Netherlands. 66:pp 1-83.
McGilchrist, C. A. and B. R. Trenbath, 1971. A revised analysis of plant competition experiments. Biometrics, 27:659-679.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System Insitute), 2000. SAS/STAT Users’ Guide: Statistics Version 8, Statistical Analysis System Insitute. Inc., NC. North Carolina, USA.
Khan N., C. O'Donnell, S. Asad and S. W. Adkins, 2011. Competitive displacement of parthenium weed with beneficial native and introduced pasture plants. Tropical and Subtropical Weeds Research Unit, 7th Australasian Weeds Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Aertes, R., Boot, R. G. A. and P. J. M. Vander Aart, 1991. The relation between above and below ground biomass, allocation pattern, and competitive ability. Oecologia 87: pp 551-559.
Bowen, D., Ji, J. and S. W. Adkins, 2007. Management of parthenium through competitive displacement with beneficial plants: a field study, Brisbane. A Report to Queensland Murray Darling Committee. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, p.16.
Knox, J., Jaggi, D. and M. S. Pau, 2010. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of selected plant species on Parthenium hysterophorus L. Egyptian Journal of Biology 12: 57-64.
Wang, G., McGiffen, M. E. and J. D. Ehlers, 2006. Competition and growth of six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes, sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea). Weed Science 54: 954-160.
Timsina, B., 2007. Impact of Parthenium hysterophorus L. invasion on soil and plant species composition of grasslands of central Nepal. The MSc Thesis, Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Strydhorst, S. M., King, J. R., Lopetinsky, K. J. and K. N. Harker, 2008. Weed Interference, Pulse Species and Plant Density Effects on Rotational Benefits. Weed Science 56: 249-258.
Shashie, A., 2007. The Impact of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) on the Range Ecosystem Dynamics of the Jijiga Rangeland, Ethiopia. The Msc thesis presented to the school of Graduate studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
Tamado, T., L. Ohlander, and P. Milberg, 2002. Interference by the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. with grain sorghum: Influence of weed density and duration of competition. International Journal of Pest Manage 48: 183-188.
Davies, D. K. H., Hoad, S. P., Maskell, P. R. and K. Topp, 2004. Looking at cereal varieties to help reduce weed control inputs. In Proceedings Crop Protection Northern Britain, Penicuik, p.159-163.
Pimentel, D., 1990. Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.