Geoenvironmental Impact of Effluents Generated from Al Subiya Power Plant on the Northern Kuwait Bay, State of Kuwait
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 6, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 120-139
Received: Jul. 2, 2017;
Accepted: Jul. 13, 2017;
Published: Oct. 11, 2017
Views 2425 Downloads 99
Mohamed Ibrahim El–Anbaawy, Department of Geology, College of science Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Ahmed Abdelhalim, Department of Geology, College of science Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Saeed Ndail, Department of Geology, College of science Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Mohammad Al Sarawi, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Kuwait University, Kuwait, State of Kuwait
The present study proposed to assess the geo-environmental impacts of Al Subiya desalination plant discharges in the Arabian Gulf, Kuwait. Most of the power and freshwater needs in the Middle East are met by the desalination of seawater. With approximately 11 million m3 of freshwater being produced each day, the salinity of the seawater along the Gulf coast is increasing. Due to brine discharge into outlet, salinity combined with higher sea surface temperatures was increased is a big environmental challenge. Therefore, in the current study the evaluation of Salinity and conductivity was higher in outlet samples than the inlet. Understanding chemical quality of sediment is important since many pollutants bind strongly to sediment particles and are persistent in the aquatic environment. The chemical and physical make-up of sediment is largely a reflection of upstream and local geology, land use, surface run off and many other complex phenomena. Many persistent compounds have high molecular weight and therefore settle out quickly and are incorporated with other settled organic materials. Since the sediment-water layer is the most reactive layer of the sea bed, changes in the sediment distribution and its physio-chemical characteristics will certainly occur in relation to time and space. In view of this, a distribution map of the sediment is important to understand the changes in composition and nature of contamination in the aquatic environment. This study set out to survey Al Subiya desalination plant inlet and outlet of marine area in Kuwait's Arabian Gulf water and to generate an updated map of the sediments of Kuwait's marine environment, in terms of pollutant factors and the corresponding map of water quality parameters during the survey of one year. The specific objectives were: 1) total organic carbon (TOC), and total petroleum hydrocarbons(TPH) in the sediment collected from selected station, 2) analyze the water quality parameters (pH, Dissolved Oxygen, temperature, salinity, turbidity, conductivity potential) in Al Subiya desalination plant inlet and outlet region, and 3) examine the level of contamination in sediments in terms of size, composition and concentration of different metals and correlate this data with the available physical water quality parameters.
Mohamed Ibrahim El–Anbaawy,
Mohammad Al Sarawi,
Geoenvironmental Impact of Effluents Generated from Al Subiya Power Plant on the Northern Kuwait Bay, State of Kuwait, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2017, pp. 120-139.
Enva Rachel, Harussi Kobiand and Perry Dan, (2002), The Footprint of the Desalination Processes, Desalination 152, 141-154.
Talat Saeed, Khordagui Husny and Al-Hashash Huda, (1999 a), Contribution of Power/Desalination Plants to The Levels of Halogenated Volatile Liquid Hydrocarbons in The Coastal Areas of Kuwait, desalination, 121: 49-63.
Talat Saeed, Khordagui Husny and Al-Bloushi Amal, (1999 b), Distribution of Volatile Liquid Hydrocarbons in The Vicinity of Power/Desalination Plants in Kuwait, wat.sci. tech, 40, 99-107.
Al-Sarawi, M., Massoud, M. S., and Al-Abdali, F., (1998 a), Preliminary Assessment of Oil Contamination Levels in Soil Contaminated With Oil Lakes in Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 106: 493-504.
Al-Sarawi, M., Massoud, M. S., and Wahba, S. A., (1998 b), Physical Properties As Indicators of Oil Penetration in Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 102: 1-15.
Massoud, M. S., Al-Sarawi, M., and Wahba, S. A., (2000), Variations in The Chemical Properties of Soils Contaminated with Oil Lakes in The Greater Burgan Oil Fields, Kuwait. Water, Air and Soil pollution, 118: 281-297.
Al Theyabi Noura (2012), Effect of Thermal Pollution on Microfauna "Foraminifera" A Case Study of Ras Al Zour And Ras Al Subiyd Power Stations, State of Kuwait, Unpublished Theses, Kuwait University 145 page.
Al Hurban, A., El-Gamily, H. and El-Sammak, A. (2007), Geomorphic Changes in Ras Al Subiyah Area, Kuwait. Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 1377–1390.
APHA, (2013), Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 22nd Edition.
Kuwait Environmental Protection Authority, (2002), May, Technical Report, 73 Pages.
EPA, (1998), N-Hexane Extractable Material for Sludge, Sediment and Solid Samples, Method 9071B.
Sahuquillo, A., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Rubio, R., Rauret, G., Thomas, R. P., Davidson, C. M., Ure, A. M., (1999). Use of a Certified Reference Material for Extractable Trace Metals to Assess Sources of Uncertainty in the BCR Three-stage Sequential Extraction Procedure. Anal. Chim. Acta 382, 317–327.
Al Shemmari H., Al Dousari., A. M., Lina, T., and Al Ghadban, A. N., (2013), Mineralogical characteristics of surface sediment in Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait. Kuwait J. Sci. 40 (2) pp. 159-176.
Keil, R. G., Fuh, E., Giddings, C. B., and Hedges, J. I., (1994), Mineralogical and Textural Controls on the Organic Composition of Coastal Marine Sediments: Hydrodynamic Separation Using SPLITT-Fraction. Geochemical Cosmochimica Acta 58: 897-893.
Kim, Y., Kim, K., Kang, H. D., Kim, W., Doh, S. H., Kim, D. S. & Kim, B. K., (2007), The Accumulation of Radiocesium in Coarse Marine Sediment: Effects of Minerology and Organic Content. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54: 1341-1350.
Ghannoum, M. A., Al-Sarawi, M., ABO Alyan, A. and Baca, B. (1991). Microbiological Water Quality Along the Kuwait Waterfront Project, Kuwait. INTERN. J. Environmental studies, 37, 65- 71.
Shams El din A. M., Aziz Shawki and Makkawi B., (1994), Electricity and Water Production in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and its Impact on the Environment, desalination, 97, 373-388.
Ali, l. N., Al-Dousari, A., and Talebi, L., (2009), Impact of Desalination Plants Discharge Effluent on the Marine Environment in Kuwait. KISR 9699
Hopner, T., (1999), A procedure for Environmental Impact Aassessments (EIA) for Seawater Desalination Plants. Desalination, 124: 1-12.
Hopner, T., and Windelberg, J., (1996), Elements of Environmental Impact Studies on the Coastal Desalination Plants, Desalination, 108: 11-18.