Evaluation of Accidental Atmospheric Releases of Chlorine and Butane from a Mobile Source Using ALOHA and MARPLOT
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 6, Issue 6, December 2017, Pages: 144-155
Received: Nov. 16, 2017;
Accepted: Nov. 24, 2017;
Published: Jan. 17, 2018
Views 2656 Downloads 118
Noura Mohammad Al-Sarawi, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, USA
Follow on us
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extend of the threat zone of two mobile accidental atmospheric releases of chlorine and butane on the I-95 Highway by estimating the downwind dispersion of the chemical plumes using the numerical model ALOHA (Area Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and by graphing the boundaries of the threat zone using MARPLOT (Mapping Application for Response, Planning, and Local Operational Tasks). In addition, to assess the risk of exposure at two points of interest from the chlorine accident, and to measure the extent of the flammable zone; the area where a flash fire or a vapor cloud explosion could occur at some point after the release begins, resulting from the butane accident. Moreover, the aim is to study the stability class effect on indoor and outdoor concentrations and its effect on distance of the flammable zones. The paper conclude that the stability class has a significant effect on the prediction of the size of the toxic threat zone under different atmospheric dispersion conditions. In addition, the size of the area impacted after a chemical release depends on the characteristics of the chemical along with the meteorological and atmospheric conditions.
Hazardous, Mobile Accidents, Atmosphere, Chlorine, Risk Analysis, Numerical Model
To cite this article
Noura Mohammad Al-Sarawi,
Evaluation of Accidental Atmospheric Releases of Chlorine and Butane from a Mobile Source Using ALOHA and MARPLOT, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 6, No. 6,
2017, pp. 144-155.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Inanloo B. and Tansel B. (2015). Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia, Journal of Environmental Management, 156: 1-9.
EPA U. S. (1999). ALOHA User’s Manual (Technical report). Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Energy Management. [Internet cited 25 Mar 2017]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/cameo/aloha.htm
Hydro Instruments (2016). Chlorine Handling Manual. 2016. [Internet cited 8 Apr 2017] Available from: www.hydroinstruments.com/files/Chlorine%2520Handling%2520Manual%25202016%252005%252006.pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Inanloo B. Tansel B. Jin X. and Bernardo -Bricker A.(2015). Cargo-specific accidental release impact zones for hazardous materials: risk and consequence comparison for ammonia and hydrogen fluoride. Environment Systems and Decisions, 36 (1): 20–33.
Jones R., Lehr W., Simecek-Beatty D. and Michael Reynolds R. (2013). ALOHA® (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) 5.4.4: Technical Documentation. U. S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 43. Seattle, WA: Emergency Response Division, NOAA. 96 pp.
NOAA (2011). Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs). Office of Response and Restoration. [Internet cited 5 Apr 2017] Available from: http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/oil-and-chemical-spills/chemical-spills/resources/acute-exposure-guideline-levels-aegls.html
PHMSA (Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration), US DOT (2016). [Internet cited 5 Apr 2017]. Available from: https://phmsa.dot.gov/staticfiles/PHMSA/DownloadableFiles/Files/Hazmat/ERG2016.
Stanley S. Grossel (2008). Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants (Industrial Safety Series, 8), J. Casal. Elsevier B. V., Oxford, UK/Boston, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 21 (4): 490-491.
Tseng J. M., Su T. S. and Kuo C. Y. (2012). Consequence Evaluation of Toxic Chemical Releases by ALOHA, Procedia Engineering, 45: 384-389.
United States Department of Energy (2004). ALOHA Computer Code Application Guidance for Documented Safety Analysis. 2004. Tech. No. DOE-EH-4.2.1. 3. [Internet cited 12 Apr 2017]. Available from: https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/09/f2/Final_ALOHA_Guidance_Reportv52404.pdf
United States Department of Energy (2014). ALOHA. [Internet cited 5 Apr 2017]. Available from: https://energy.gov/ehss/aloha
United States Fire Administration (1998). HAZMAT for First Responders. [Internet cited 8 Apr 2017] Available from: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=1258
United States Fire Administration (2017). Hazmat Intelligence Portal. U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. [Internet cited 5 Apr 2017] Available from: https://hip.phmsa.dot.gov/analyticsSOAP/saw.dll?Dashboard&NQUser=HazmatWebsiteUser1&NQPassword=HazmatWebsiteUser1&PortalPath=/shared/Public%20Website%20Pages/_portal/Yearly%20Incident%20Summary%20Reports