Contribution of the Satellite Observation on the Analysis and the Forecast of the State of Air Pollution in TOGO
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2019, Pages: 31-38
Received: Feb. 14, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 18, 2019; Published: Apr. 3, 2019
Views 206      Downloads 45
Authors
Mignanou Yawovi Amouzouvi, Department of Physics, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Koffi Sagna, Department of Physics, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Milohum Mikesokpo Dzagli, Department of Physics, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Sidéra Kodjovi Edjame, Department of Geography, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Agbéko Messanh Mohou, Department of Physics, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a crucial question about the quality of the air that people breathes in Togo and many problems that its pollution would cause on the human health (respiratory, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, increase of infections) and on the environment (destruction of the ozone layer, global warming, climatic catastrophes). The lack of precise information on the different sources of pollution, the state and degree of pollution of Togolese cities, by the government or municipal authorities and policymakers, which would enable them to take commitments to limit air pollution in the country, made that the phenomenon of pollution persists. The present study aims to characterize the atmospheric pollution situations of the cities of Togo through the determination of the degree of pollution in Togo using the satellite measurements. The state of pollution of the atmosphere in Togo was performed by simulations using GIOVANNI software and satellite data from NASA. This research provides additional information on the variability of the pollutants according to time and will help government to foresee the eventual consequences. The results obtained allowed drawing up maps of the state of pollution of Togolese cities, knowing its sources and the average quantities of polluting particles released in Togo every year. The variation of the rate of these pollutants in the atmosphere in Togo also forecasts the degree of pollution of its cities and the estimate gave 481 ppm for CO2, 142.10-5 particles.m-2 of CO, 436.8 1021 mol.cm-2 of CH4 particles, 56.2 10-7 Kg.m-2 of SO2 in the atmosphere in Togo in 2050. The results showed that the capital Lomé is more polluted.
Keywords
Atmospheric Pollution, Satellite Data, Polluting Particles, Togo
To cite this article
Mignanou Yawovi Amouzouvi, Koffi Sagna, Milohum Mikesokpo Dzagli, Sidéra Kodjovi Edjame, Agbéko Messanh Mohou, Contribution of the Satellite Observation on the Analysis and the Forecast of the State of Air Pollution in TOGO, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 31-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20190801.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Koffi Sagna, Komi Apélété Amou, Tchamye Tcha-Esso Boroze, Djima Kassegne, Amah d’Almeida, Kossi Napo. Environmental Pollution due to the Operation of Gasoline Engines: Exhaust Gas Law. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering. Special Issue: Computer-Aided Reservoir Characterization Methods. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 39-43. doi: 10.11648/j.ogce.20170504.11.
[2]
FLEMMING, Johannes, BENEDETTI, Angela, INNESS, Antje, et al. The CAMS interim reanalysis of carbon monoxide, ozone and aerosol for 2003–2015. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017, vol. 17, no 3, p. 1945-1983.
[3]
K. Sagna, A. Almeida, Supercritical evaporation of a drop paper published in international Journal of Research in Engeneering and Science (IJRES), ISSN (online): 2320-9364, (Print): 2320-9356, www.ijres.org Volume 2 Issue7 //July 2014//pp .41.47.
[4]
A. Ung, (2003). Cartographie de la pollution atmosphérique en milieu urbain à l'aide de données multisources (Doctoral dissertation, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris).
[5]
E. Hache. (2014). Apport de la bande de Chappuis pour la mesure de l'ozone depuis un satellite géostationnaire pour la surveillance de la qualité de l'air (Doctoral dissertation, Université de Toulouse, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier).
[6]
L. Basly. (2000). Télédétection pour la qualité de l'air en milieu urbain (Doctoral dissertation, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis).
[7]
SELLITTO, Pasquale, DI SARRA, Alcide, CORRADINI, Stefano, et al. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25–27 October 2013. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2016.
[8]
BURSIK, Marcus, JONES, Matthew, CARN, Simon, et al. Estimation and propagation of volcanic source parameter uncertainty in an ash transport and dispersal model: application to the Eyjafjallajokull plume of 14–16 April 2010. Bulletin of volcanology, 2012, vol. 74, no 10, p. 2321-2338.
[9]
C. Clervaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6041-6054, 2009.
[10]
A. Coman, G. Foret, M. Beekmann, M. Eremenko, G. Dufour, B. Gaubert, A. Ung, C. Schmechtig, J.-M. Flaud, and G. Bergametti: Assimilation of IASI partial tropospheric columns with an Ensemble Kalman Filter over Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2513– 2532, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2513-2012, 2012.
[11]
J. Cuesta,, M. Eremenko, X. Liu, G. Dufour, Z. Cai, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, P. Sellitto, G. Foret, B. Gaubert, M. Beekmann, J. Orphal, K. Chance, R. Spurr and J.-M. Flaud (2013), Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (19), 9675-9693.
[12]
M. N. Deeter, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, and H. M. Worden (2015), Information content of MOPITT CO profile retrievals: Temporal and geographical variability, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120 (24), 12723–12738, doi:10.1002/2015JD024024.
[13]
C Doche, G. Dufour, G. Foret, M Eremenko, J. Cuesta, Beekmann, M. P. and Kalabokas: Summertime tropospheric-ozone variability over the Mediterranean basin observed with IASI, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10589-10600, doi: 10.5194/acp-14-10589-2014, 2014.
[14]
R. Engelen, J. Flemming, J., P. Hedelt, A. Inness, Suttie, M. and Valks, P. (2015) Assimilating Volcanic SO2 Satellite Data in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service Global Data Assimilation System. In: ATMOS 2015 Abstract Book. ESA ATMOS 2015, 8. 12. Jun. 2015, Kreta, Griechenland.
[15]
J. Flemming, A. Benedetti, A. Inness, R. J. Engelen,, L. Jones, V. Huijnen,... & V. H. Peuch, (2017). The CAMS interim reanalysis of carbon monoxide, ozone and aerosol for 2003–2015. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (3), 1945-1983.
[16]
A. Fortems-Cheiney, G. Dufour, L. Hamaoui-Laguel, G. Foret, G. Siour, M. Van Damme, F. Meleux, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, L. Clarisse, O. Favez, M. Wallasch, and M. Beekmann, Unaccounted variability in NH3 agricultural sources detected by IASI contributing to European spring haze episode, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL069361, 2016.
[17]
R. Zhang,, Wang, G., Guo, S., Zamora, M. L., Ying, Q., Lin, Y.,... & Wang, Y. (2015). Formation of urban fine particulate matter. Chemical Reviews, 115 (10), 3803-3855.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186