Ethnobiological Study of Svaneti Fungi and Lichens: History of Research, Diversity, Local Names and Traditional Use
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015, Pages: 101-110
Received: Mar. 25, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 26, 2015;
Published: Jun. 25, 2015
Views 2168 Downloads 45
I. Kupradze, Institute of Botany of IliaStateUniversity, Tbilisi, Georgia
A. Jorjadze, Institute of Botany of IliaStateUniversity, Tbilisi, Georgia
A. Arabidze, Institute of Ecology of Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
T. Beltadze, Institute of Ecology of Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
K. Batsatsashvili, Institute of Ecology of Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
N. Y. Paniagua Zambrana, Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz, Bolivia
R. W. Bussmann, William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, USA
Research about macro-fungi of Svaneti, a historical province of Georgia, started in the 1920th with a botanical expedition of R. Singer, under the auspices of the National Museum of Vienna. At present about 400 species of macro-fungi are known for Svaneti, 67 of which are edible (and used for food in Georgia), and 27 are poisonous. The history of Svaneti lichen research started with analysis of the material collected by H. Lojka and M. Dechy in 1884-1885 made by E. Vainio. As of now, 250 species of lichens are known for the region. In the present study ethnobiological interviews on Svaneti macro-fungi and lichens were conducted in 16 villages of Svaneti. Our analysis shows that the local population uses mainly 22 species of mushrooms for food, 10 of which are used most frequently: Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm., Agaricus arvensis Schaeff., A. campestris L., Cantharellus cibarius Fr., Lactarius piperatus (L.) Pers., L. deliciosus (L.) Gray, Macrolepiota excoriata (Schaeff.) Wasser, M. procera (Scop.) Singer, Ramaria flava (Schaeff.) Quel. A comparison of the vernacular names given in the literature and mentioned in the interviews collected during the present study shows that the population of Svaneti must have had better knowledge of mushrooms in the past. This is evidenced by a much higher number of local names in literature: of about 50 vernacular names of particular species or groups of fungi found in the literature, only 12 are still used by the population. This paper presents various uses of macro-fungi in Svaneti as quoted in literature and based on interview data. Lichens, particularly, Usnea and Bryoria species, as well as Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.are called “Pimpa” or “Pimpous” and “Chach”. The only use of these species was by hunters as field-bedding to keep warm in the cold winters. In addition, we describe in the present paper how fungi and lichen uses were reflected in the local folklore.
N. Y. Paniagua Zambrana,
R. W. Bussmann,
Ethnobiological Study of Svaneti Fungi and Lichens: History of Research, Diversity, Local Names and Traditional Use, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue:Applied Ecology: Problems, Innovations.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 101-110.
R. Singer, “Pilze aus dem Kaucasus 2. Ein Beitrag zur Flora Swanetzens und einiger angrenzender Taler,” Botanischer Centralblatt Beihefte, vol. 48(2), pp. 513-542, 1931.
I. G. Nakhutsrishvili, Agarics of Georgia. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1975.
V. Kh. Gulmagarashvili, New species of Aphillophorales for Georgia. Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, vol. 91(3), pp. 685-687, 1978.
T. Anchabadze, Materials for study of Discomicetes of Svaneti, Bulletin of the State Museum of Georgia, vol. XX-A, pp. 111-127, 1960.
I. G. Nakhutsrishvili, Flora of Spore-producing Plants of Georgia (A Conspectus). Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1986.
E. Vainio, Lichenes in Caucaso et in Peninsula Taurica annis 1884-1885 ab H. Lojka et M. Dechy collecti, Termeszetr. Fuz., vol. 22, pp. 269-343, 1899.
A. Jatta, Lichenes in Sommier S. et Levier E. Enumeratio plantarum anno 1890 in Caucaso lectorum. Acta Horti Petropolitani, vol. XVI., 1900.
M. Dechy, „Kaukasus". Reisen und Forschungen im kaukasischen Hochgebirge. Bd. III. Bearbeitung der gesammelten Materialien von F. Filarszky, E. Csiki, K. Papp, F. Schafarzi k und M. v. Dechy. Mit 36 Lichtdrucktafeln, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (E. Vohsen), 1907.
Degelius G., The Lichen genus Collema in Europe, Symb. Sot. Upsal., vol. 13, 1954, p. 2.
O. Szatala, Lichenes in Peninsula Taurica et in Caucaso ab F. Komienski, D. Sosnowsky et E. Koenig collecti, Borbasia, vol. 4, pp. 70–96. 1944.
A. Oniani, Collection of Svanetian Names of Trees and Shrubs (on Lashkuri Dialect), Materials on Japhetic linguistics, vol. VIII. Petrograd: Academy of Sciences Press, 1917.
B. Nizharadze, Georgian-Svanetian-Russian Dictionary, Balszemouri dialect. Tbilisi: Universali, 2012.
K. Dondua, Svanetian-Georgian-Russian dictionary (Lashkhuri Dialect). Tbilisi: Publishing house of Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani Pedagogical University of Tbilisi, 2001.
V. Topuria, Svanetian Dictionary. Tbilisi: Kartuli Ena, 2000.
N. Ia. Marr, Extract from Svanetian-Russian Dictionary, Materials on Japhetic linguistics, vol. X. Petrograd: Russian State Academy Press, 1922.
A. Liparteliani, Svanetian-Georgian Dictionary (Choluruli sub-dialect). Tbilisi, 1994.
A. Makashvili, Botanical Dictionary. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1991.
D. Ukleba, For physical-geographic characteristic of Zemo Svaneti, Manuscript of Candidate Dissertation, TSU, 1952, unpublished.
R. Gagnidze and M. Davitadze, The Local Flora [Plant World of Georgia]. Batumi: GamomtsemlobaAch’ara, 2000.
Major results of the first national general census of the population of Georgia (Population of villages of Georgia), vol. 2, T. Beridze, I. Archvadze and Ts. Eliadze, Eds. Tbilisi: State Department of Statistics of Georgia, 2003, pp. 143-146, 164-169,
M. Kordzakhia and Sh. Javakhishvili, Climate of Georgia. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 1971.
N. Zazanashvili, R. Gagnidze and G. Nakhutsrishvili, Main types of vegetation zonation on the mountains of the Caucasus, Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, vol. 85, pp. 7-16, 2000.
V. Topuria, Svanetian language (1965), Unpublished works on Svanetian language, in Works, vol. 2, V. Topuria. Tbilisi: Kartuli ena, 2002, pp. 150-219.
P. M. Kirk, Species Fungorum (version Feb 2014), in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 22nd December 2014, Y. Roskov, L. Abucay, T. Orrell, D. Nicolson, T. Kunze, A. Culham, N. Bailly, P. Kirk, T. Bourgoin, R.E. DeWalt, W. Decock and A. De Wever, Eds. Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.-org/col. Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands: Species 2000, 2014.
I. Nakhutsrishvili, Fungi of Georgia. Tbilisi: BunebaPrinti, 2007.
K. Kanchaveli, I. Nakhutsrishvili and Tz. Inashvili, Key to Spore-producing Plants of Georgia, vol. 1. Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1981.
A. Liparteliani, Svanetian-Georgian Dictionary (Choluruli Sub-dialect). Tbilisi: Diogene, 2014.
M. Burduli, Folk medicine in West Georgia (according to Svanetian Ethnographic Materials). Akhaltsikhe: Akhaltsikhe University, 2010.
Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language, A. Chikobava, Ed.-in-Chief. Tbilisi: Main Editorial Board of the Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia, 1986.
Gurian Medical Book, J. Kharchilava, Comp., M. Asatiani Ed. Tbilisi: Pergamenti, 1993.