Genetic Characteristics of Brown Forest Soils on the Middle Urals
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015, Pages: 148-156
Received: Mar. 5, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 8, 2015; Published: Jun. 25, 2015
Views 2148      Downloads 44
Samofalova Iraida, Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Faculty of Soil Science, Agrochemistry, Ecology and Commodity research, Perm, Russia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Feature of mountain soil formation is that the soils on the mountain slopes are formed in different bioclimatic and orogeomorfological conditions. The purpose of research is to study genetic properties of the brown forest soils in the Middle Urals. Features of the morphological structure: truncated profile (35-75 cm), weakly expressed in the differentiation of the soil profile into individual Horizons, detritus (20-65%), loamy fine earth, the signs of podzolization in the soil profile is not found. Feature granulometric size distribution of the soil - a gradual increase in weight on the profile into Sandy Loam to Silty Clay and Clay, the dominant factions are either big Silt or Sand. Soils are characterized by a very acidic environment and high hydrolytic acidity. The soils are enriched in organic matter and humus profile characterized by prolixity. Group composition humus shows mobility, high degree of humification of organic substances to fulvic acids. Gross composition shows that the processes of soil formation on Mount, North Basegi aren’t leading to a distinctly different profile. Coefficients of geochemical accumulation, subsurface weathering, eluviation, oxidation calculated and helped define the features of the gross composition of soils. Character of distribution in profile and correlation of forms of iron help to diagnose physical processes of weathering and soil formation (burozemic pedogenesis et al.); signs Podzolization not revealed. Weathering and soil formation processes that occur with varying intensity, creating a diversity of soil cover and the spatial heterogeneity of soils, even within the same type. Thus, in the mountains of the Middle Urals brown forest soils form a number of subtypes: raw organic (900 m) - ferruginized (655 m) - metamorphosed (590 m) - clay-illuvial (577 m) - eluvial (565 m) - clay-illuvial (315 m).
Brown Forest Soils, Properties, Genetic Horizons, Soil Profile, Soil Formation, Weathering Processes
To cite this article
Samofalova Iraida, Genetic Characteristics of Brown Forest Soils on the Middle Urals, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue:Applied Ecology: Problems, Innovations. Vol. 4, No. 3-1, 2015, pp. 148-156. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2015040301.33
Kovda V.A. Similarities and differences in the history of the soils of the continents // Trans. 8th Int. Congr. Soil Science. Bucharest, 1964. vol. 1.
FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World, 1:5,000,000. UNESCO, Paris, 1971-1975.
Buol S.W., Hole F.D., Cracken R.J. Soil genesis and classification // The Lowa State Univ. Press, Amer. 1973.
Rozanov B.G. The soil cover of the globe. M.: MGU, 1977. 248 p.
Urushadze T.F. Some aspects of the soil formation in the mountainous regions // Soil science. 1979. № 1. Р. 131-143.
Soil Taxonomy. A Basic system of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Second edition. USDA. Washington D. C. 1999. 869 p.
World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. A framework for international classification, correlation and communication. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome. 2006. 128 p.
Baumler R., Zech W., Heuberger H., Weber-Diefenbach K. Investigations on the intensity of weathering jf soils developed from glacial and fluvioglacial deposits and their relationship with the history of the landscape in the Mt. Everest region // Geoderma, 1991. 48. P. 223-243.
Grosswald M.G., Kuhle M., Fastook J.L. Wurm Glaciation of Lake Issyk-Kul Area, Nian Shan Mts.: A Case Stady in Glacial History of Central Asia // GeoJournal. 1994. 33.2/3. P. 273-310.
Brooks P.D., Schmidt S.K., Williams M.W. Winter production of CO2 and N2O from alpine tundra: environmental controls and relationship to inter-system C and N fiuxes // Gecologia. 1997. Vol.110. N. 3. P. 403-413.
Farley R.A., Fitter A.H. Temporal and spatial variation in soil resources in a deciduous woodland // Journal of Ecology. 1999. Vol. 87. № 4. P. 688-696.
Lee B. D., Sears S. K., Graham R. C., Amrhein C., and Vali H. Secondary mineral genesis from chlorite and serpentine in an ultramafic soil toposeqnence // Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2003, vol. 67, no. 4, P. 1309-1317.
Wilkinson M.T. et al. Soil production in heath and forest Blue Mountains, Australia: influence of lithology and palaeoclimate // Earth Surface Processes And Landforms, 2005. 30: P. 923-934.
Humphreys G.S., Wilkinson M.T. The soil production function: A brief history and its rediscovery // Geoderma 139. 2007. P. 73-78.
Heimsath A.M., Hancock G.R. and Fink D. The 'humped' soil production function: Eroding Arnhem Land, Australia // Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 34: 2009. P. 1674-1684.
Fu G., Shen Z., Zhang X., Yu C., Zhou Y. and Yang P. Response of ecosystem respiration to experimental warming and clipping at daily time scale in an alpine meadow of Tibet // Journal of Mountain Science, 2013. vol. 10, P. 455-463.
Yanhong L., Huimei W., Wenjie W., Lei Y., Yuangang Z. Ectomycorrhizal Influence on Particle Size, Surface Structure, Mineral Crystallinity, Functional Groups, and Elemental Composition of Soil Colloids from Different Soil Origins // The Scientific World Journal Volume, 2013. P. 1-13.
Rammann E. Soil and climatic zones of Europe // Soil science. 1901. N 1. p. 5-18.
Prasolov L.I. Mountain-forest soils of the Caucasus // Tr. Soil institute. 1947. T. 25. P. 5-28.
Antipov-Karataev I.N. On the brown forest and brown soils // Soil science. 1947. № 12. P. 697-703.
Liverovskii J.A., Kornblum E.A. Zonation of soils in submontane areas // Publishing house of USSR Academy of Sciences. Ser. geograph. 1960. № 3. Р. 34-41.
Stefanovits P. Broun forest soils of Hungary // Academiai Kiado, Budapest, 1971.
Urushadze T.F. Soils of Georgia mountain forests. Tbilisi: Mentsiereba, 1987. 243 p.
Zakharov S.A. Soils of mountain regions of the USSR // Soil science. 1937. № 6 P. 810-848.
Zakharov S.A. On some controversial issues of mountain soil science // Soil Science. 1948. № 6. Р. 347-356.
Zonn S.V. Mountain forest soils of the Northwest Caucasus. M.: Publishing House of USSR Academy of Sciences, 1950. 333 p.
Friedland V.M. Brown forest soils of the Caucasus // Soil science. 1953. № 12. Р. 28-44.
Retzer J.L. Soil formation and classification of forested mountain lands in the United States // Soil Science, 1963. vol. 96. N. 1.
Stase H. a.o. A handbook of Australian soils. – Adelaide. 1968.
Prehtel L.V. Silvicultural properties of brown forest and brown sod soils // FESU Scientific notes. 1969. T. 20. Р. 62-79.
Ohtsuka T., Hirota M., Zhang X. et al. Soil organic carbon pools in alpine to nival zones along an altitudinal gradient (4400–5300 m) on the Tibetan Plateau. // Polar Science, 2008. vol. 2. №.4. Р. 277-285.
Petrov B.F. Soils of Southern Sakhalin // Soil science. 1947. № 11. Р. 641-651.
Glazovskaya M.A. Soils of mountain regions of Kazakhstan // Publishing house of Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, soil science series. 1949. Issue 14. № 52. Р. 191-220.
Gradoboev N.D. Soils of larch forests of Siberia (Altai, Kuznetsk Alatau and Tuva) // Works on Siberia Forestry. 1955. Issue 2. – Novosibirsk.
Ivanov G.I. Soils of mountain coniferous and deciduous forests of South Primorye // Komarovski readings. Vladivostok, 1957. Issue 6. Р. 55-87.
Gerasimov I.P. Brown forest soils in the USSR, European countries and the USA // Soil science. 1959. № 7. Р. 61-68.
Karpachevskii L.O. Some features of the soil forming in Kamchatka // Soil science. 1965. № 11. Р. 1-10.
Zonn S.V. Features of allitic soil-forming on the islands of Primorye and the Far East // Studying and development of the natural environment. M.: Science, 1976. Р. 125-137.
Firsova V.P., Gorjacheva T.A., Prokopovich E.V. Comparative characteristic of properties of mountain soils of the Middle Urals // Soil science. № 5. 1963. Р. 16-25.
Firsova V.P. On the problem of the distribution and properties of brown forest soils in the Urals // The collection Forest and soil: Tr. of All-Union Scientific Conference. Krasnoyarsk, 1968. Р. 200-203.
Firsova V.P. The soils of the taiga zone of the Urals and Trans-Urals. M.: Science, 1977. 175 p.
Ivanova E.N. Mountain forest soils of the Middle Urals // Proceedings of the Soil Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1949. T. 30. Р. 168-193.
Mikhailova R.P. Micromorphological and chemical properties of brown raw-organic soils of central mountainous zone of the Middle Urals // Soil science. 1976. № 5. Р. 18-28.
Firsova V.P. Brown mountain forest soils of the Urals // Soil science. 1991. № 4. Р. 47-58.
Karpachevsky M.L., Shevchenko E.M. The ratio of lithogenic and cenogenetic factors in the formation of brown forest soils of the Middle Urals // Soil science. 1997. № 1 P. 22-30.
Semikolennykh A.A., Bovkunov A.D., Aleynikov A.A. Soils and soil cover of the taiga belt of the Northern Urals (the Pechora river headwaters) // Soil science. 2013. № 8. Р. 911-923.
Rusanova G.V., Kuhri P. Soil on the border of the forest and alpine tundra of the Polar Urals // Soil science. 2001. № 4. Р. 409-417.
Dymov A.A., Zhangurov E.V. Morphological and genetic features of soilf of the Enganepe ridge (Polar Urals) // Soil science. 2011. № 5. Р. 515-524.
Dymov A.A., Dubrovsky Y.A., Gabov D.N. Pyrogenic change in illuvial ferruginous podzols (middle taiga, Komi Republic) // Soil science. 2014. № 2. Р. 144-154.
Dymov A.A., Zhangurov E.V. Diversity and genetic characteristics of soils of the Polar Urals // Perm Agricultural Gazette. 2014. № 3 (7). Р. 45-51.
Samofalova I., Luzyanina O., Maulina E., Kulkova L. Features soil mountain-taiga zone the middle urals // Igdir university jurnal of the institure of science and technology. 2(2EK: A): 2012. P.93-100.
Samofalova I.A., Luzyanina O.A. Ecological and genetic characteristics of soils of mountain forest zone in the Middle Urals // Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2013. T. 15. № 3(4). Р. 1426-1431.
Samofalova I.A., Luzyanina O.A., Kondratieff M.A., Mamontov, N.V. The elemental composition of soils in undisturbed ecosystems in the Middle Urals // Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University. 2014. № 5 (115). Р. 67-74.
Samofalova I.A., Luzyanina O.A. Sokolova N.V. Morphological and genetic features of soils in the subalpine zone (Middle Urals) // Actual problems of the humanitarian and the natural sciences. 2014. № 1 (60). Pt. I. P. 24-28.
Samofalova I.A., Luzyanina O.A. "Basegi" reserve soils and their classification // Perm Agricultural Gazette. 2014. № 1 (5). Р. 50-60.
Samofalova I. Geochemical features of the elemental composition of soils in undisturbed ecosystems in the Middle Urals (for example the Reserve "Basegi") // French Journal of Scientific and Educational Research. No.2. (12), July-December, 2014. Vol. III. “Paris University Press”. 2014. P. 156-170.
Sofronitsky P.A. Geological outline // Proceedings of the fifth meeting on the chemical water geography and hydrogeochemistry of Perm region. PSU, Perm wepartment of geographical Society of the USSR, Institute of Karst and Speleology. Issue 4 (5). Perm, 1967. P. 26-41.
Voskresensky S.S., Leontiev O.K., Spiridonov A.I. [et al.]. Geomorphological zoning of the USSR and adjacent areas: tutorial. M.: Higher School, 1980. 343 p.
Gorchakovskii P.L. The flora of the alpine Urals. M.: "Science", 1975. P. 13-67.
Theory and practice of chemical analysis of soils. / Ed. by L.A. Vorobeva. M.: GEOS, 2006. – P.344.
Antonova Z.P., Skalaban V.D., Suchilkina L.G. Determination of humus in soils // Soil Science. 1984. № 11. Р. 130-133.
Schwertmann U. Relations between iron oxides, soil color, and soil formation // Soil color. SSSA Special Publication no 31. Madison, USA, 1993. P. 51-69.
Classification and diagnosis of soils of USSR / comp. V.V. Egorov, V.M. Friedland. M.: Kolos, 1977. 225 p.
Samofalova I.A., Luzyanina O.A. Mountain soils of the Middle Urals (for example, SNR "Basegi"). Perm State Agricultural Academy. Perm: Publishing House of HPE Perm State Agricultural Academy, 2014. 154 p.
Orlov D.S., Sadovniko L.K. Soils chemistry. M.: Higher School, 2005. 558 p.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931