Can Nigeria Generate 30% of her Electricity from Coal by 2015
International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages: 28-37
Received: Feb. 7, 2014; Published: Mar. 10, 2014
Views 3635      Downloads 259
Elijah Ige Ohimain, Bioenergy and Environmental Biotechnology Research Unit, Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Nigeria is blessed with diverse energy resources. The country had generated electricity from coal in the 1950s, but this was abandoned in the wake of the civil war (1969-1970) and the focus changed to petroleum. Nigeria now generates her electricity mostly from gas thermal plants (64.6%). Electricity in Nigeria is poor, of low quality with frequent unplanned outages. Nigeria has about 8000MW installed electricity generation capacity but only 3800-4000 MW is actually operational. The government now wishes to diversify the electricity generation mix by encouraging private sector participation in the energy sector and targeted 30% electricity generation from coal. The study reviewed policies relating to coal power generation in Nigeria and the causes of previous failures in the sector. The study found that the electricity sector reforms and other policy changes have spurred investment of nearly $10 billion in the coal sector. Five projects of 4800MW generation capacity are under construction. Of this, two projects located in Enugu state of combined capacity of 1600MW could be ready by 2015. These two projects accounted for 40% of total installed capacity, or 20% operational electricity generation in Nigeria. The paper also presents the prospects and challenges of coal power generation in Nigeria.
Coal Electricity, Electricity Sector Reforms, Energy Mix, Energy Policy, Mining
To cite this article
Elijah Ige Ohimain, Can Nigeria Generate 30% of her Electricity from Coal by 2015, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2014, pp. 28-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140301.15
A. F. Adenikinju. Efficiency of the energy sector and its impact on the competitiveness of the Nigerian economy. International Association for Energy Economics, Fourth Quarter 2008, pp. 27 – 31.
F. I. Ibitoye, and A. F. Adenikinju. Future demand for electricity in Nigeria. Applied Energy 2007, pp. 492 – 504.
E. I. Ohimain. Emerging bio-ethanol projects in Nigeria: Their opportunities and challenges.Energy Policy, 2010, pp. 7161-7168.
E. I. Ohimain. The benefits and potential impacts of household cooking fuel substitution with bio-ethanol produced from cassava feedstock in Nigeria. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2012, pp. 352 – 362.
A. F. Adenikinju. Electricity infrastructure failures in Nigeria: a survey-based analysis of the costs and adjustment responses. Energy Policy 2003, pp. 1519 – 1530.
African Development Bank (ADB). Nigeria economic and power sector reform program (EPSERP), 2009, Appraisal Report.
J. Ikeme and O. J Ebohon. Nigeria’s electric power sector reform: what should form the key objectives? Energy Policy 2005, pp. 1213 – 1221.
P.V.S.N. Tallapragada, Nigeria’s electricity sector – Electricity and gas pricing Barriers. International Association for Energy Economics, first Quarter 2009, 29 – 34.
L. C. Ekechukwu, and U. B. Akuru, Chellenges in power generation in Nigeria – the way forward. In: Proceedings of the 4th electrical engineering national conference on energy sources for power generation, held on 21st - 23rd July 2013 at University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 2013, pp. 25 – 52.
A. O. Aderemi, M. O. Ilori, H. O. Aderemi and J.F.K Akinbami, Assessment of electricity energy use efficiency in Nigeria food industry. African Journal of Food Science vol. 3, 2009, pp. 206 – 216.
M.A Waheed, S.O Jekayinfa, J.O Ojediran, and O.E. Imeokparia, Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria. Energy, 2008, 35 – 45.
B. B. Akarakiri, Private electric generation as an alternative in Nigeria. Energy 1999, pp. 445 – 447.
F.I Ibitoye and J.K.F Akinbami, Strategies for implementation of CO2-mitigation options in Nigeria’s energy sector. Applied Energy 1999, pp. 1 – 16.
A. M. Gulloma. Coal can generate 30% Nigeria’s electricity needs – Jonathan. Blue Print August 20, 2013.
A. O. Odukwe and S.O Enibe, Energy resources and reserves in Nigeria. Solar and Wind Technology vol. 5, 1998, pp. 335 – 338.
Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC), Coal. Technical brief on mineral raw materials in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Abuja, 2009.
A. S. Sambo, Prospects of coal for power generation in Nigeria. A paper presented at the International workshop on promotion of coal for power generation. Held at the Nike Lake Resort Hotel, Enugu on 27th – 28th April 2009.
A. O. Onyearu, Addressing Nigeria’s electricity deficits through coal. accessed 24 October 2013.
C. Orazulike, The coal challenge. Oil gas, December 20, 2012.
G. C Oguejiofor, Using total quality management as a tool for re-engineering coal production in Nigerian Coal Corporation. An Energy Industry case study. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy vol. 5, 2010, pp. 29 – 40.
A. Alao, Nigeria inaugurates committee on development of coal to power, target 4,000MW. Accessed 24 October 2013.
Business Day, BPE prepares coal mines for sale to complement power sector privatization. www.businessdayonline August, 14, 2013.
T. A. Adedosu, H. O. Adedosu, and F. M. Adebiyi, Geochemical and mineralogical significance of trace metals in Benue trough coal, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 7, 2007, pp. 3101 – 3105.
Ministry of Mines and Steel Development (MMSD), 2007. Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act (NMMA) 2007. Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, Abuja.
S. A Ryemshak and A. Jauro, Proximate analysis, rheological properties and technological applications of some Nigerian coals. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry vol. 4, 2013, pp. 7.
C. E. Akujor, Nigeria’s energy sources. Energy, 1985, pp. 1075 – 1078.
N. D. Onwuka, Fossil fuels and Nigeria’s energy situation by the year 2000. Energy vol. 9, 1984, pp. 617 – 622.
Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC), Steel raw materials in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Abuja, 2010.
Ministry of Mines and Steel Development (MMSD), The coal deposits of Nigeria. Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, Abuja, 2013.
F. N. Ogwu, Optimization of Nigerian coal production. In: Nigeria coal: A resource for energy and investments. Abuja: Raw material research and development council (RMRDC). Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Abuja, 1996.
T. O. Nwasike, Opportunities and challenges of an integrated energy policy for Nigeria-perspectives from a competing energy product-coal. SPE conference, Abuja, Nigeria. August 2003.
C. Olayinka, Enugu, Indian Firm Sign MOU on power plant Guardian Friday, 24 June 2011.
G. Mmaduakolam, Power reforms agenda: coal as a potential source of energy. Nigerian Tide, April 9, 2012.
Daily Trust. FG to build coal power stations in Gombe, Kogi, Enugu. Daily Trust Published on Thursday, 08 September 2011.
E. Anuforo and N. Onyedika, Govt to build coal-fired power plants in Enugu, Gombe, Kogi. The Guardian Wednesday, September 7, 2011.
A. Emmanuel, FG to build $4bn coal power plant in Benue. Vanguard on August 20, 2013.
L. Chukwu, Coal to power development in mines and steel. The Guardian Friday, 31 May 2013.
C. I. Ezekwe and A. O. Odukwe, A.O, Coal in Nigeria. Energy vol. 5, 1980, pp. 177 – 182.
O. O Obiukwu and S. O Okozi, Potential of coal fired power plants in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the 4th electrical engineering national conference on energy sources for power generation, held on 21st - 23rd July 2013 at University of Nigeria, Nsukka, pp. 25 – 52.
T. Dike, Enugu to build coal-based power plant. Vanguard June 18, 2011.
I. O. Ige, Nigeria to generate 30% electricity from coal – Jonathan. National Mirror on August 20, 2013.
O. Adetayo, Federal government to generate 30% electricity from coal-Jonathan, Punch August 20, 2013.
J. Abraham, Potential of Nigeria’s coal industry. Punch August 22, 2013.
O. O. Onyemaobi, Problems encountered in dewatering a Nigerian coal mine. In: proceedings of the third international mine water congress, Melbourne Australia, 1988, pp. 41 – 48.
S. J. Mallo, The menace of acid mine drainage: an impending challenge in the mining of Lafia-Obi coal, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 6, 2011, pp. 46 – 54.
H. Ezeigbo and B. N. Ezeanyim, Environmental pollution from coal mining activities in Enugu Area, Nigeria. International Journal of Mine Water and the Environment, 1993, pp. 53 – 62.
M. C. Amobi, Deregulating the electricity industry in Nigeria. Lessons from the British reform. Socio-Economics Planning Sciences, 2007, pp. 291 – 304.
J. Ofikhenua, 15 companies take over unbundled PHCN firms. The Nations Newspaper 23 August 2013.
R. Okere, Privatization to raise electricity generation to 20,000 MW by 2018. The Guardian Newspaper 7th October 2013.
Manufacturing Today, The mineral sector in Nigeria. Wednesday, 28 September 2011.
L. C. Arizona-Ogwu, Nigeria and the electricity ordeal: Is Coal still Viable? 24 October 24, 2013
Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), Roadmap for power sector reform. A customer-driven sector-wide plan to achieve stable power supply, 2010.
I. Ikeonu, The Nigerian electric power sector reform: establishing an effective licensing framework as a tool for attracting investment. Accessed December 9, 2010.
A. U. Adoghe, Power sector reforms in Nigeria – likely effects on power reliability and stability in Nigeria,, 2007/2008, Accessed December 9, 2010.
Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette. Federal Government press, Lagos, Nigeria, 2005.
International Energy Agency (IEA), IEA World Energy Outlook 2011.
World Coal Association, Coal Matters 3: Coal and Electricity Generation., accessed 24 October 2013.
OECD/IEA, The global value of coal. Coal industry advisory board, 2012.
A. Eberhard, The future of South African coal: market, investment and policy challenges. Program for energy and sustainable development. Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, South Africa, 2011.
P. Homewood, Germany to open six more coal power stations in 2013. April 23, 2013.
World Coal Institute, Coal: Secure energy. First Edition, 2005,
A. W. Bhutto and S. Karim, Coal gasification for sustainable development of the energy sector in Pakistan. Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 9, 2005, pp. 60 – 66.
T. W. Patzek and G. D. Croft, Potential for coal-to-liquid conversion in the United States-Fscher-Tropsch synthesis. Natural Resources Research 2009.vol. 18, pp. 181 – 191.
G. D. Croft, and T. W. Patzek, T.W., 2009. Potential for coal-to-liquid conversion in the U.S.-resource base. Natural Resources Research vol. 18,2009, pp. 173 – 180.
L. Zhang and Z. Huang, Life cycle study of coal-based dimethylether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China. Energy, 2007, pp. 1896 – 1904.
E. E. Powell and G.A Hill, Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility. Energy, 2010, pp. 4582 – 4586.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186