Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives
International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2014, Pages: 162-167
Received: Mar. 16, 2014; Accepted: Jul. 17, 2014; Published: Jul. 30, 2014
Views 3211      Downloads 171
Authors
Vered Atiya Zuckerman, ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel
Rinat Ittah, ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel
Mira Freiberg Bergstein, ICL Industrial Products Ltd, Beer Sheva, Israel
David Itzhak, Materials Engineering Department Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants need to be reduced. In a coal-fired power plant, mercury enters the system primarily with the coal, and exits the system as bound particle compounds, soluble mercury or vapor-phase mercury. Oxidized mercury is effectively removed in wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbers – WFGD.one of the options for enhancing the process of mercury absorption is adding oxidizing agents such as bromide/bromine or chloride/chlorine. The present work describes simulation tests performed in order to evaluate the effect of bromide/chloride additions on the behavior of various steels under a combustion environment in a diesel fed steam boiler. The tested samples A209-T1A, A213-T11, A213-T22 and AISI 1020 were exposed at two locations in the boiler system: inside the flame chamber near the wall and in the middle of the stack at a temperature of 250- 300° C for 3 months. XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyze and to inspect the crystallographic structure. The results clearly show that high temperature interaction between the metal surface and the fire combustion products lead to the deposition of a protective layer composed mainly of CaSO4, FeSO4 and Fe3O4. Negligible weight loss was detected in all the tested cases. No harmful effect was detected in the presence of bromide, added as CaBr2, or chloride, added as CaCl2, to diesel fuel, up to a level of 1000 ppm.
Keywords
Mercury Removal, Bromine, Steam Boiler Steel, Power Station, High Temperature Corrosion, Diffusion Barrier
To cite this article
Vered Atiya Zuckerman, Rinat Ittah, Mira Freiberg Bergstein, David Itzhak, Behaviour of Boiler Steel Exposed to Combustion Gases Containing Bromide and Chloride Additives, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 162-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20140304.11
References
[1]
Schoeny R.Hassett- Sipple B, Swartout J. “Mercury study report to congress”, Us environmental Protection Agency, Office of air quality planning and standards, Technical report, 1997, EPA- 452/R-97-007.
[2]
Feeley, Brickett LA, O’Palko BA, Murphy JT, “Field testing of mercuary control technologies for coal-fired power plants”, DOE\NETL Mercury R&D Pogram Review, May 2005.
[3]
Ye Zhuang, Chuanmin Chen, Ron Timple and John Pavlish, “Investigation on bromine corrosion associated with mercury control technologies in coal flue gas”, Fuel, vol 88, pp. 1692-1697,2009.
[4]
Kellie, Cao Y, Duan Y, et, “Factors affecting mercury speciation in 100 MW coal-fired boiler with low-NOX burners”, Energy fuel, vol 19, pp. 800-6, 2005.
[5]
Blythe G, Richardson C, Rhudy R. “Pilot evaluation of the catalytic oxidation of mercury for enhanced removal in wet FGD systems”. In: Proceedings of the air quality III: mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter conference, Arlington, VA, September, pp. 9–12, 2002.
[6]
Mercedes Dίaz-Somoano, Sven Unterberger and Klaus R.G. Hein,“Mercury emission control in coal-fired plants: The role of wet scrubbers”, Fuel Processing Technology, vol 88 pp. 259–263 , 2007.
[7]
Galbreath KC, Zygarlicke CJ, Tibbetts JE, Schulz RL, Dunham GE, “Effects of NOx, a-Fe2O3, c-Fe2O3, and HCl on mercury transformations in a 7-kW coal combustion system”, Fuel Process Technol, vol 86(4),pp. 429–48, 2005.
[8]
Liu S, Yan N, Liu Z, Qu Z, et al, “Using bromine gas to enhance mercury removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants”, Environ Sci Technol, vol 41(4), pp. 1405–12, 2007.
[9]
Cao Y, Gao Z, Zhu J, Wang Q, Huang Y, Chiu C, et al. “Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction(SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal”, Environ Sci Technol, vol 42(1), pp.256–61, 2008.
[10]
Klaus H Oehr,”Enhanced mercury control in coal- fired power plant. Patent no. US 6,808,692 B2, Oct, 26, 2004.
[11]
Vosteen Bernhard, “Process for removing mercury from flue gases”, Patent no. EP 1 386 655 B1, Feb,4 , 2004.
[12]
Bernhard W.Vosteen,Rico Kanefke and Heinz Koser, “Bromine-enhanced Mercury Abatement from Combustion Flue gases Recent Industrial Application and Laboratory Research”, VGB PowerTech vol 86 , pp 70-75,2006.
[13]
Callister W. D., Jr., 2003, “Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction” , Sixth Edition, John Wiley &Sons, lnc.
[14]
Huijbregts WMM, Leferink R, “Latest advances in the understanding of acid dewpoint corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in combustion gas condensates”, Anti-Corros Methods Mater, vol 51(3), pp. 173–88, 2004.
[15]
Persson K, Brostroem M, Carlsson J, “High temperature corrosion in a 65-MW waste-to-energy plant”, Fuel Process Technol, vol 88(11–12), pp. 1178–1182, 2007.
[16]
Nielsen HP, Frandsen FJ, Dam-Johansen K, Baxter LL, “The implications of chlorine-associated corrosion on the operation of biomass-fired boilers”, Progress Energy Combust Sci, vol 26(3), pp. 283–298,2000.
[17]
Spiegel M, Zahs Aand Grabke HJ, “Fundamental aspects of chlorine-induced corrosion in power plants”, Mater High Temp, vol 20(2), pp.153–159, 2003.
[18]
Zahs A, Spiegel M, Grabke HJ, “Chloridation and oxidation of iron, chromium, nickel and their alloys in chloridizing and oxidizing atmospheres at 400–7000C”, Corros Sci , vol 42(6), pp.1093–122. 2000.
[19]
Alam Matthews, “Magnetite formation by the reduction of hematite with iron under hydrothermal conditions”, American Mineralogist, vol 6l , pp. 927-932, 1976.
[20]
W.W Smeltzer. “The kinetics of wustite scale formation on iron”, Acta Metallurgica, vol 8 (6), pp 377–383, 1960.
[21]
Erik Khzouz, “Grain Growth Kinetics in Steels”, A Major Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the Faculty of the WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Project Number: RDS 21381. 2011.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186