An Efficient Method for Electrical Earth Resistance Reduction Using Biochar
International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages: 65-70
Received: Mar. 2, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 7, 2015; Published: Mar. 13, 2015
Views 4583      Downloads 273
Authors
Lukong Pius Nyuykonge, Department of Renewable Energy, The Higher Institute of the Sahel, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon
Noël Djongyang, Department of Renewable Energy, The Higher Institute of the Sahel, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon
Lendzemo Wirnkar Venasius, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD-Bambui), Bamenda, Cameroon
Fagbenro John Adeneyi, Department of Crop Production, Soil and Environmental Management, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This paper presents a method that treats the soil by replacing a volume of the earthing portion with biochar instead of chemicals. The method contributes to reduce the earth resistance over long periods of time in order to avoid the expensive cost of these elements and their secondary effects. In the proposed method, a volume of soil from an earthing portion of 20 cm in diameter and 1 m deep is replaced with dry biochar. The earthing electrode is driven into this earthing portion. The use of this method significantly reduced the earth resistance with one electrode from 242.0Ω to an average of 26.27 Ω with the Clay sandy soils of the Sahelian zone of Cameroon during the dry season and 2.1 Ω during the rainy season. Furthermore, smaller reductions were achieved when connecting the two such earths in parallel reducing the resistance of clay-sandy soils from 242.0 Ω to 15.2 Ω in the dry season and 1.1 Ω during the raining season.
Keywords
Earth Resistance, Earthing Portion, Chemicals, Biochar
To cite this article
Lukong Pius Nyuykonge, Noël Djongyang, Lendzemo Wirnkar Venasius, Fagbenro John Adeneyi, An Efficient Method for Electrical Earth Resistance Reduction Using Biochar, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2015, pp. 65-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150402.17
References
[1]
Hammuda1, A., Nouri, H. and Al-Ayoubi, M. (2011). An Investigation into Substation Grounding and Its Implementation on Gaza Substation. Energy and Power Engineering, 3, 593-599.
[2]
Kinsler, M. (1998). A Damage Mechanism: Lightning-Initiated Fault-Current Area to Communication Cables Buried Beneath Overhead Electric Power Lines. IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, 109-118.
[3]
Na, J., Kang, H., Kim, Y., Chang, K., Hwang, Y. and Ko, T. (2011). Experimental Study on the Lightning Impulse Dielectric Characteristics of Sub-Cooled Liquid Nitrogen for a High Voltage Superconducting Fault Current Limiter. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 21, 1336-1339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2011.2105456
[4]
Dusang, L.V. (2008). A Ground Fault Protection Method for Ungrounded Systems. IEEE Electric Power Conference EPEC, 1-6.
[5]
Ferrell, B. and Ostdyk, R. (2010). Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems. IEEE Aerospace Conference, 1-8.
[6]
Kamel, R., Chaouachi, A. and Nagasaka, K. (2011). Comparison the Performances of Three Earthing Systems for Micro-Grid Protection during the Grid Connected Mode. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2, 206-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2011.23024
[7]
Colominas, I., Gómez-Calviño, J., Navarrina, F. and Casteleiro, M. (2001). Computer analysis of Earthing Systems in horizontally or vertically Layered Soils. Electric Power Systems Research, 59, 149-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7796(01)00148-1
[8]
Shalash, N., Haidar, A. and Abdul Sattar, K. (2012) Grounding Locations Assessment of Practical Power System. Energy and Power Engineering, 4, 19-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/epe.2012.41003 [9] Roberts, J. and Aituve, J. (2001). Review of Ground Fault Protection Methods for Grounded, Ungrounded, and Compensated Distribution Systems, SEL.
[9]
John A. Fagbenro, Suarau O. Oshunsanya and Bolarinwa A. Oyeleye. Effects of Gliricidia Biochar and Inorganic Fertilizer on Moringa Plant Grown in an Oxisol. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 00 :1-8, 2015.
[10]
Hanninen, S. (2001) Single Phase Earth Faults in High Impedance Grounded Networks Characteristics, Indication and Location. Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
[11]
Kojovic, L.A., Day, T.R. and Chu, H.H. (2003). Effectiveness of Restricted Ground Fault Protection with Different Relay Types. Power Engineering Society General Meeting, IEEE, 13-17 July 2003, 1-6.
[12]
Jinxi, M. and Dawalibi, F.P. (2006) Grounding Analysis of a Large Electric Power Station. IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology, Chongqing, 22-26 October 2006, 1-6.
[13]
Jacob, D. and Nithiyananthan, K. (2008). Effective Methods for Power Systems Grounding. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 5, 151-160.
[14]
El-Tous, Y. and Alkhawaldeh, S.A. (2014). An Efficient Method for Earth Resistance Reduction Using the Dead Sea Water. Energy and Power Engineering, 6, 47-53.
[15]
Lehmann J and Joseph S (2009). Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan Ltd, London, UK, 404p
[16]
Bird M. I. and Gro cke D. R. (1997). Determination of the abundance and carbon isotope composition of elemental carbon in sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 3413–3423.
[17]
Bird M. I. and Cali J. A. (1998). A million-year record of fire in sub- Saharan Africa. Nature 394 , 767–769.
[18]
Bird M. I., Moyo C., Veenendaal E. M., Lloyd J. and Frost P. (1999). Stability of elemental carbon in savanna soil. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13 , 923–932
[19]
W. R. Jones, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-99 (1980),
[20]
Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., Zech, W. (2002). “Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review”, Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 4
[21]
Zeeshan A., et al. (2014). Impact of Biochar on Soil Physical Properties. Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 4(5), pp. 280-284 May, 2014. http:// www.scholarly-journals.com/SJAS
[22]
Junhua, J. et al. (2012). Biochar Supercapacitor Electrodes. Illinois Biochar Group Meeting, June 14, 2012.
[23]
Lukong Pius Nyuykonge (2014). Biochar Production and Analysis for Soil Enhancement and Climate Change Mitigation. M.Eng. Thesis. University of Maroua: Cameroon.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186