Analysis of Nigeria-Sao Tome and Principe Joint Development and Suggestions for China
International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 123-128
Received: Mar. 17, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 29, 2015; Published: Apr. 30, 2015
Views 4964      Downloads 183
Author
Huang Wen-bo, Institute of International Law, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The Nigeria-Sao Tome and Principe Joint Development is a typical case in Africa. The two states are located in Gulf of Guinea, where delimitation disputes inside are serious and oil competitions among western developed countries outside are fierce, the Nigeria-Sao Tome and Principe Joint Development is carried out on this background. About the implement, several factors play a positive role: stable bilateral relations, adjustments of domestic policies and the establishment of Gulf of Guinea Commission; but oil steal and outside intervention are negative factors. About the content, many special provisions, such as Proportion, Management, Petroleum Development Contracts and Disputes Settlement are contained in joint development agreement. However, there are still some problems unsolved: unequal status of the two states, lack of information sharing mechanism and supervision mechanism, multinational corporations’ monopoly. China should learn from it, deepen mutual understanding and mutual trust with countries nearby to promote joint development in South China Sea.
Keywords
Joint Development, Joint Development Agreement, International Law
To cite this article
Huang Wen-bo, Analysis of Nigeria-Sao Tome and Principe Joint Development and Suggestions for China, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 123-128. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20150403.11
References
[1]
See Tim Daniel, Maritime Boundaries in the Gulf of Guinea, Partner in DJ Freeman, London, available at http://www.gmat.unsw.edu.au/ablos/ABLOS01Folder/DANIEL.PDF, last visited on May. 2, 2014.
[2]
See MO Ya, Great Country was Busy Carving up Oil in Gulf of Guinea, People, September 17, 2003, available at http://www.people.com.cn/GB/guoji/14549/2093180.html, last visited on Nov. 25, 2014.
[3]
See YAO Gui-mei, Western Powers’ Strategy of Contending for African Oil Resources and its Consequences, Africa Review, Vol.2, 2005.
[4]
Oil Scramble Next Step: Africa, available at http://finance.eastday.com/eastday/finance/cjsp/userobject1ai278434.html, last visited on Nov. 25, 2014.
[5]
See LIN Xiao-chun, DAI A-di, Global Oil Giants Compete in Gulf of Guinea, China Petrochemical News, Vol.8, Sept. 8, 2005.
[6]
Available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=3&k=52&case=94&code=cn&p3=8, last visited on May. 1, 2014.
[7]
See Summaries of Judgments,Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice 1997-2002,United Nations, p.241, available at http://legal.un.org/ICJsummaries/documents/english/ST-LEG-SER-F-1-Add2_E.pdf, last visited on Nov. 24, 2014.
[8]
ZHANG Chang-bing, ZHANG Tai-qiu, An Analysis on Autonomous Development of African Oil Economy and Its Main Influence, Journal of International Trade, Vol.9, p.79, 2011.
[9]
ZHENG Xiao-meng, Sao Tome and Principe: West African Island Longing Black Gold Spewing, China Petrochemical News, Vol.7, Nov. 5, 2010.
[10]
Available at http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/i/jyjl/k/200905/20090506284404.shtml, last visited on Nov. 24, 2014.
[11]
See Gbenga Oduntan, The Emergent Legal Regime for Exploration of Hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Guinea: Imperative Considerations for Participating States and Multinationals, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol 57, pp.253-258, 2008.
[12]
See Chika Izuora, Nigeria: Oil Export Suffers Setback As Shell Shuts Facility, available at http://allafrica.com/stories/201411250221.html, last visited on Nov. 26, 2014.
[13]
Japanese documentary film in 2005, Nigerian Oil Battle, available at http://share.renren.com/share/250086330/5633128640, last visited on Nov. 26, 2014.
[14]
From Stratfor, The Militarization of West Africa, available at https://www.globalpolicy.org/the-dark-side-of-natural-resources-st/water-in-conflict/40165.html, last visited on Nov. 26, 2014.
[15]
US Naval Base to Protect Sao Tome Oil, BBC News, Thursday, Aug. 22, 2002, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2210571.stm, last visited on Nov. 26, 2014.
[16]
Claire Woodside, West Africa: America's Foreign Policy Post 911 and the "Resource Curse,"A Head on Collision, Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp.26-27, 2007.
[17]
Wendy N.Duong, Chinese Law in the Global Context: Article: Following the Path of Oil: The Law of the Sea or Realpolitik-What Good Does Law Do in the South China Sea Territorial Conflicts ? Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 30, p.33, 2007.
[18]
Nicholas Chinedu Eze, Rethinking Maritime Delimitation and Promoting Joint Development of Petroleum: the Nigeria-Sao Tome and Principe Joint Development Model, a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Laws in The Faculty of Graduate Studies, The University of British Columbia, September 2011, pp.172-173.
[19]
Moreno, Carlos J., Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Guinea: Can the New Gulf Be Green? Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 31, No.2, p.429, 2009.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186