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Algorithm for Determining the Knock Resistance of Pipeline Natural Gases
International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages: 41-48
Received: Jul. 15, 2020; Accepted: Aug. 18, 2020; Published: Sep. 3, 2020
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Sander Gersen, DNV-GL Oil & Gas, Groningen, The Netherlands
Martijn van Essen, DNV-GL Oil & Gas, Groningen, The Netherlands
Gerco van Dijk, DNV-GL Oil & Gas, Groningen, The Netherlands
Howard Levinsky, DNV-GL Oil & Gas, Groningen, The Netherlands; Energy and Sustainability Research Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
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A next-generation algorithm to calculate the PKI methane number is reported. The algorithm is suitable for a wide range of fuel compositions encountered in natural gas pipelines, including admixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from renewable sources. Comparison with measurements of knock in a commercial engine shows that the algorithm allows sharp distinction between fuel compositions that do or do not cause engine knock under given operating conditions. Moreover, the algorithm presented here demonstrates superior performance as compared to the existing methods from MWM and AVL. The methane numbers calculated using the PKI MN algorithm for a wide range of fuel compositions are within the uncertainty of the experimental knock measurements. In contrast, methods that are currently used do not predict the knock behavior of the measured gas compositions reliably. A major benefit of the algorithm presented here is that it consists of a simple polynomial equation that can be easily integrated into real-time gas-quality sensing equipment to calculate the PKI MN for assessment of pipeline gas quality or into engine management systems to allow next-generation feed-forward, fuel-adaptive control. In contrast, the current methods such as AVL and MWM need dedicated (and for AVL, proprietary) solvers that iteratively calculate the methane number. Furthermore, given the experimentally verified reliability and ease of implementation of the PKI MN algorithm, we assert that it is an excellent, open-source candidate for international standards for specifying the knock resistance of gaseous fuels.
Pipeline Gas, Natural Gas, Methane Number, Engine Knock, Algorithm
To cite this article
Sander Gersen, Martijn van Essen, Gerco van Dijk, Howard Levinsky, Algorithm for Determining the Knock Resistance of Pipeline Natural Gases, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2020, pp. 41-48. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepe.20200904.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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