International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 29-41
Received: Nov. 14, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 19, 2014;
Published: Dec. 27, 2014
Views 3125 Downloads 260
S. Kariuki, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Technical University of Mombasa, City: Mombasa, Kenya
V. Siyoi, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Technical University of Mombasa, City: Mombasa, Kenya
L. Mogaka, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Technical University of Mombasa, City: Mombasa, Kenya
M. J. Saulo, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Technical University of Mombasa, City: Mombasa, Kenya
J. Maroko, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Technical University of Mombasa, City: Mombasa, Kenya
As the energy costs continue to rise steadily, researchers are looking for alternative sources of energy to meet the rising demand for sustainable energy. Finding an inexpensive and reliable energy generation technology is a big challenge both in developed and developing countries. Innovation and invention of new technologies, mass production and economies of scale will together enable a reduction in the cost of solar electricity to levels comparable with other electricity generating sources. Solar energy producers can increase their energy production by creating solar thermal hybrids by using concentrating solar thermal hybrids together with other energy sources like coal, biomass, oil, gas, geothermal and others. The performance of concentrating solar thermal power is limited by the availability of the sun and the design. The first solution is the hybridization of the solar power plants with fossil backup systems. For this case the fossil is used as a fuel to help meet the desired energy output of the system. Hybrid concepts are most suitable for utility application since they offer high power availability during peak and base loads operation. The hybrid model is assumed to be operated exclusively on renewable energy and net production of carbon dioxide.
M. J. Saulo,
Thermal Analysis of a CSP-Biogas Hybrid Power Plant, International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Special Issue: Electrical Power Systems Operation and Planning.
Vol. 4, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 29-41.
W.Weiss, http://www.energyxperts.net/contents “Solar Collectors”,AAE Institute of Sustainable Technologies, PP 1-77.
E.w.Brown,http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/feneric/solar.html,“An Introduction to Solar Energy”,pp 1-6,1988.
B.Yousef ,NM Adam, “Perfomance Analysis of a Flat plate collector with and Without Porous Media”, Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory ,Institute of Advanced Technology ,University of Putra,Malysia,Vol 19 No 4 November 2008.
M.Nabag,M.Al-Radhawi,M.Bettayeb, “Model Reduction of Flat plate Solar Collector Using Time Space Discretization”2010 IEEE International Energy Conference, pp 45-50,2010.
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/fy08_annual_report_43 “Solar thermal –Concentrated Solar Power”, Potential of Renewable Energy in the San Diego Region, PP 1-52, 2008.
S.farahat,F.Sarhaddi,H.Amid, “Exegetic Optimisation of Flat Plate Collectors”, 2009 Renewable Energy Journal ,vol 34,PP 1169-1174,August 2008.
F.Struckmann, “Analysis of a Flat plate Collector”,Project Report 2008MVK160 Heat and Mass Transport,pp1-4,May 2008.
S.A.Kalogiru, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications”,Progress in Energy and Combustion science, PP 231-295,2004.
http//www.eere.energy.gov/, “Energy efficiency and renewable Energy /,materials online.
http://www.cityenergy.org.za/files/resources/implementation “Concentrated solar power”, support for South African local Government,pp 1-3.
H.hongjuan,Y.Yongping,H.Eric,S.Jifeng,D.Changaing,M.jian, “Evaluation of Solar Aided Biomass Power Generation Systems with parabolic trough Field,vol 54,No 6,pp1455-1461,June 2011.
T.Barnbaum,M.Fitchner,T.Hirsch,R.Pitzpaul,G.Zimmerman, “A Concept of Future Parabolic trough solar based thermal power plants”, Berlin, PP1-10,September 2008.
Valerie l.Zimmer,Claire Woo,,Peter Schwartz, “Concentrated solar power for Santa Barabara County”, Analysis of High Efficiency Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Electric Energy and Resources Group/ Materials Science and Engineering 226,PP 1-32,December 2008.
Volker Quanshng,FranzTrieb,Nobert Geuder,Christoph Richter,”Contribution of Concentrated Solar Thermal Power for Competitive Sustainable Energy Supply”, DLR, Plataforma Solar de Almería, Apartado 39, E-04200 Tabernas, Spain ,pp 1-13.
EronJacobson,N.Ketjoy,S.Nathakaranakule,W.Rakwich, “Solar Parabolic trough simulation and Application for a Hybrid plant in Thailand”, School of Renewable Energy Technology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 Thailand,University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98101, USA,Seattle Engineer at the Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington 98124, USA PP1-13.
www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/csp_water_study.pdf, “Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study:Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation”, Materials online, March 2011.
Nobuo Tanaka”Technology Road Map,Concentrating Solar Power”2010
D. A. Burke P.E,” Options for Recovering Beneficial Products From Dairy Manure”Dairy waste anaerobic digestion handbook,june 2001.
www.nrel.gov/analysis/sam/) “System Advisor Model”
N.J.Themelis, “Anaerobic Digestion Of Biodegradable Organics In Municipal solid Wastes”FU Foundation School of Engineering & Applied Science, Columbia University ,PP 1-56, May 2002.
P.Frebourg, N.ketjoy, S.Nathakaranakul, A.Pongtornkulpanich, W.Rwakwich,P. Laodee, “Feasibility Study Of a Small Scale Grid Connected Solar Parabolic Biomass Hybrid Power Plant In Thailand”,School of Renewable Energy Technology
K. Kaygusuz, “Prospect of Concentrating Solar Power in Turkey: The Sustainable Future”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Journal Reviews, PP 809-813,2011.
K.Sekgoele,Non Member,S.p.Chowdhury,Member,IEEE and S.Chowdhury,Member,IEEE, “Technical and Economic Assessment of Power Generation from Landfill Gas in South Africa”,2011 PES,USA,pp1-8.