Comparative Analysis of Electrical Power Utilization in Nigeria: From Conventional Grid to Renewable Energy-based Mini-grid Systems
American Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Volume 8, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages: 111-119
Received: Aug. 15, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 4, 2019; Published: Sep. 30, 2019
Views 51      Downloads 25
Authors
Unwana Macaulay Ekpe, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria
Vincent Bassey Umoh, Electrical Power Group, Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Ibeno, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The electrical power grid in Nigeria is limited in terms of reach and utilization, and this leaves a large section of the population without access to power supply. This paper therefore reviews literature on the current state of the conventional electrical power grid in Nigeria. The generation, transmission and distribution sectors of the grid are briefly reviewed before examining the extent, capacity and power generation technologies used by some currently deployed mini-grid systems. It is observed that a majority of deployed mini-grid systems depend on solar photovoltaic renewable energy sources and such systems are mostly isolated from the conventional grid. Therefore, to make a case for improved access to electrical power supply in the country, statistical and demographic analysis has been carried out to reveal the size of the electrical energy market available to mini-grids and the need to integrate current and future mini-grids to the conventional grid. It is noted that with substantial but targeted investments, a number of existing smart grid technologies can be employed to integrate mini-grids to the conventional grid thereby providing affordable access to electricity for communities that are hitherto unserved or underserved by the conventional grid. Some of the available smart grid technologies that have been identified to be suitable for integration purposes include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) and high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. A top-level schematic of how and where such technologies can be deployed is provided.
Keywords
Electrical Power, Integration, Mini-Grid, Smart Grid
To cite this article
Unwana Macaulay Ekpe, Vincent Bassey Umoh, Comparative Analysis of Electrical Power Utilization in Nigeria: From Conventional Grid to Renewable Energy-based Mini-grid Systems, American Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2019, pp. 111-119. doi: 10.11648/j.epes.20190805.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
“Population total” The World Bank (2017), [online]. Available; https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=NG&view=chart. [Accessed May 14, 2019].
[2]
“Nigeria-Access to Electricity” [online]. Available: https://tradingeconomics.com/nigeria/access-to-electricity-percent-of-population-wb-data.html. [Assessed May 14, 2019].
[3]
K. Olaniyan, B. C. McLellan, S. Ogata and T. Tezuka, “Estimating Residential Electricity Consumption in Nigeria to Support Energy Transitions”, Sustainability. Vol. 10, Issue 1440, pp. 1-22, May 2018.
[4]
D. Rogers, Power Africa (2019), “Energy Sector Overview” [online]. Available; https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/nigeria [Assessed May 14, 2019].
[5]
A. Muyiwa, “90 million Nigerians lack electricity, says Fashola”, The Guardian, March 6, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://guardian.ng/news/90-million-nigerians-lack-electricity-supply-says-fashola/ [Assessed May 7, 2019].
[6]
S. O. Oyedepo, O. P. Babalola, S. C. Nwanya, O. Kilanko, R. O. Leramo, A. K. Aworinde, T. Adekeye, J. A. Oyebanji, A. O. Abidakun and O. L. Agberegha, “Towards a Sustainable Electricity Supply in Nigeria: The Role of Decentralized Renewable Energy System”, European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 40-71, October 2018.
[7]
T. Olaoye, T. Ajilore, K. Akinluwade, F. Omole and A. Adetunji, “Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Need for Renewable Energy Mix”, American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 1-8, 2016.
[8]
O. Obafemi, A. Stephen, O. Ajayi, A. Abiodun, I. Felix, P. Mashinini and M. Nkosinathi, “Electric Power Crisis in Nigeria: A Strategic Call for Change of Focus to Renewable Sources”, IOP Conference Series: Material Science and Engineering, 413 012053, 2018.
[9]
C. Azimoh and C. Mbohwa, “Optimized Solution for Increasing Electricity Access with Mini-Grid Technology in Nigeria”, Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 12, Issue 1, pp 156 – 174, 2019.
[10]
Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission, “Power generation in Nigeria”. [Online]. Available: https://www.nercng.org/index.php/home/nesi/403-generation. [Assessed May 15, 2019].
[11]
Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission, “Power generation in Nigeria”. [Online]. Available: https://www.nercng.org/index.php/home/nesi/401-history. [Assessed May 15, 2019].
[12]
Office of the Vice President, Nigeria Power Baseline Report, 2015.
[13]
KPMG Nigeria: A Guide to the Nigerian Power Sector, December 2013.
[14]
D. Wijeratne, T. Jaswal, J. Pasemann and S. Sircar, Powering Nigeria for the Future. July, 2016. Available: www.pwc.com/gmc.
[15]
A. Yakubu, E. Ayandele, J. Sherwood, O. A. Olu, and S. Graber, Minigrid Investment Report: Scaling The Nigerian Market. The Nigerian Economic Summit Group, August 2018.
[16]
Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission, “Nigerian Electricity Supply and Installation Standards Regulations”, 2015.
[17]
Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission, “Nigerian Electricity Regulation Commission Mini-Grid Regulation”, 2016.
[18]
C. Cader and J. Moller, 2015. Preliminary modelling of off-grid PV capacities for the whole of Nigeria. GIZ.
[19]
Mini Grids in Nigeria. A Case Study of a Promising Market. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) report, 2017.
[20]
I. Malo and C. Agbaegbu, “Mini-Grids in Africa: How to prepare for the Nigerian Revolution. [online]. Available: https://renewablesinafrica.com/pdfs/Mini-Grid-Webinar-Presentation-Ify-Malo-and-Chibuikem-Agbaegbu.pdf [Assessed June 30, 2019].
[21]
Rural Electrification Agency, “Nigeria Minigrid Investment Brief”, December 2017.
[22]
ACOB Lighting Technology Limited “Project”. [Online]. Available: http://acoblighting.com/projects/ [Assessed July 13, 2019].
[23]
Worldometers, “Nigeria Population”. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/nigeria-population/ [Assessed July 09, 2019].
[24]
National Bureau of Statistics-Nigeria, “General Household Survey-Panel Wave 3 (Post Planting) 2015-2016, Third round”. [Online]. Available: http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/nada/index.php/catalog/51/study-description [Assessed July 13, 2019].
[25]
The World Bank, “Electric Power Consumption (kWh per capita)”. [Online]. Available: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC [Assessed July 12, 2019].
[26]
“MINT (economics)”, From Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MINT (economics) [Assessed July 18, 2019].
[27]
R. Mohassel, A. Fung, F. Mohammadi, and K Raahemifa, “A Survey on Advanced Metering Infrastructure,” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems Vol. 63, pp. 473–484, July 2014.
[28]
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, “Advanced Metering Infrastructure and Customer Systems: Results from the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program”, September 2016.
[29]
A. Mohanty and A. Barik, “Power System Stability Improvement Using FACTS Devices” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, pp 666-672, November 2011.
[30]
E. Ghahremani and I. Kamwa, “Analysing the Effects of Different Types of FACTS Devices on the Steady-state Performance of the Hydro-Québec Network”, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, pp. 233–249, August 2013.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186