Please enter verification code
Hydrogeological Assessments of Impacts of Irrigation on Alluvial Water Table of Delta of Senegal River
Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 9, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 107-122
Received: Sep. 15, 2020; Accepted: Oct. 5, 2020; Published: Oct. 22, 2020
Views 167      Downloads 80
Abdoul Aziz Gning, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal; Faculty of Training for Engineering, University of Thies, Thies, Senegal
Alassane Thiam, Faculty of Training for Engineering, University of Thies, Thies, Senegal
Raymond Malou, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
Mapathé Ndiaye, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal
Article Tools
Follow on us
Building dams on the Senegal River has facilitated the development of irrigated farming in Delta of Senegal River. However, this practice is threatened by the increasing degradation of soils mainly caused by salinization. The main cause of this problem is the presence of a salty aquifer at a low depth. Nevertheless, the characteristics and functioning of this aquifer are not well known. The main objective of this study, funded by Wallonie-Brussels International, is a contribution to the characterization of the hydrodynamic functioning, the hydro geochemistry of the aquifer and to identify the impact on agricultural waters. A two-step methodology has been developed: Firstly, a regional survey has been performed in the whole delta; secondly an irrigation plot has been monitored to have a detailed description of the groundwater dynamic and of the transport of salt under irrigation. Results of the regional survey show (1) the main factors that explain the fluctuation of the groundwater level are the artificial high water levels in the River, rice growing and to a lesser extent precipitation and (2) the high salt concentration in the upper aquifer. The monitoring of the Ndelle rice growing area (30 km to the North-East of Saint-Louis) has allowed calculating water and salt budgets at the scale of the irrigation plot. The influence of the irrigation on the groundwater levels has also been studied.
Groundwater, Salinization, Irrigation, Delta of Senegal River, Senegal
To cite this article
Abdoul Aziz Gning, Alassane Thiam, Raymond Malou, Mapathé Ndiaye, Hydrogeological Assessments of Impacts of Irrigation on Alluvial Water Table of Delta of Senegal River, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science. Vol. 9, No. 5, 2020, pp. 107-122. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20200905.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “Water for Sustainable Food and Agriculture A report produced for the G20 Presidency of Germany,” Rome, 2017.
Yao F, Xu Y, Lin E, Yokozawa M, Zhang J. 2007. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China. Climatic Change, 80, 395-409.
Cannarozzo M, Noto LV, Viola F. 2006. Spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Sicily (1921– 2000). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31: 1201–1211.
Liu et al. 2008 Liu, L., M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, 2008: A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 109, 2656-2663.
Ashaolu ED. 2018. Effect of climate and land use/land cover change on groundwater recharge in Osun drainage basin, Nigeria. (Ph. D. Thesis), University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
Christopherson RW. 1995. Elemental Geosystems, Macmillan, New York. Pp. 230-239.
IPCC 2007. Summary for policymakers. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the Forth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–18.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture,” 2009.
A. Pulido-Bosch, J. P. Rigol-Sanchez, A. Vallejos, J. M. Andreu, J. C. Ceron, L. Molina-Sanchez F. Sola, 2018: Impacts of agricultural irrigation on groundwater salinity Environmental Earth Sciences 77 (5) • March 2018 DOI: 10.1007/s12665-018-7386-6.
Bouwer, H. 2002. Integrated water management for the 21st century: problems and solutions. J. Irri. Dra. Eng. ASCE, 128: 193-202.
Audibert, M., 1970. Etude hydro-agricole du bassin du fleuve Sénégal. Delta du Fleuve Sénégal: Etude Hydrogéologique. Généralités et rapport de synthèse, Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO).
Narany ST, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Juahir H, Fakharian K (2014) Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using classic integrated geochemical methods and geostatistical techniques, in Amol-Babol plain, Iran. Sci World J 2014: 1–15.
Farid, 1980. Farid, M., 1980, Nile Delta Groundwater Study, Cairo University.
Diene, R. S. 1998. Riziculture et dégradation des sols en vallée du fleuveSénégal: analyse comparée des fonctionnements hydro-salins des sols du delta et de la moyenne vallée en simple et double riziculture. Ph. D. dissertation.
Government of Western Australia, Department of Water. Understanding Salinity.
Da Boit, M., Impact des aménagements hydro-agricoles sur la nappe superficielle de la basse vallée du fleuve Sénégal (Thiagar, Richard Toll, Dagana). 1993, FST-UCAD. 94 pages
Kirsch, R., 2009. Groundwater quality-saltwater intrusions. Groundwater Geophysics, a tool for Hydrogeology, second edition, (p. 475-488).
Abdoul Aziz Gning, Mansour Gueye, Mapathé Ndiaye, Fatou Ngom Diop, Raymond Malou “Dynamics and Interactions between Surface Water, Irrigation Water, and Groundwater in the Senegal River Delta’ American Journal of Water Resources. 2020, 8 (2), 78-91. DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-8-2-4.
Lange, G. et Seidel, K., 2007. Electromagnetic Methods. Environmental Geology: Handbook of Field Methods and Case Studies, (p. 239-281). Springer Publishing.
Mean, A., 2011. Caractérisation hydrogéologique du Delta du Fleuve Sénégal. Master Thesis, University of Liège, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology.
Ceuppens, J. and M. C. S. Wopereis, “Impact of non-drained irrigated rice cropping on soil salinization in the Senegal River Delta”, Geoderma, vol. 92. 125-140. 1999.
Van Asten P. J. A., L. Barbiero, M. C. S. Wopereis, J. L. MAEGHT et S. E. A. T. M VAN DER ZEE (2003). Actual and potential salt-related soil degradation in an irrigated rice scheme in the Sahelian zone of Mauritania. Agric. Water Manag., 60, 13-32.
SAED/DAIH/DHGE. (2008), Bilan de prélèvements d’eau et d’énergie, Délégation de Dagana Campagnes SSF, SSC et HIV 2005 Rapport provisoire 22p.
Boike, J., Roth, K., 1997. Time domain reflectometry as a field method for measuring water content and soil water electrical conductivity at a continuous permafrost site. Permafr. Periglac. Process. 8 (4).
S. Schneider Y. Coquet P. Vachier C. Labat J. Roger‐Estrade P. Benoit V. Pot S. Houot “Effect of Urban Waste Compost Application on Soil Near‐Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity” Journal of Environmental Quality, 25 Feb 2009, 38 (2): 772-781 DOI: 10.2134/jeq2008.0098.
Dalton, F. N., et al. "Time-domain reflectometry: simultaneous measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity." Science, vol. 224, 1984, p. 989+. Accessed 14 Aug. 2020.
A. Nadler S. Dasberg I. Lapid’1991’Time Domain Nadler A, Dasberg S., Lapid 1., 1991: Time domain reflectometry measurements of water content and electrical conductivity of layered soil columns. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 938-943.
Topp, G. C., J. L. Davis, and A. P. Annan. 1980. Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: Measurement in coaxial transmis lines. Water Resour. Res. 16: 574–582.
Noborio, K. (2001). Measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity by time domain reflectometry: A review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 31 (3), 213-237.
Zeng L, Lesch SM, et Grieve CM: 2003. Rice growth and yield respond to changes in water depth and salinity stress.: Agricultural Water Management 59: 67-75.
Gourlez de la Motte L: 2012. Salinisation progressive des eaux et des sols liée aux conditions hydrogéologiques et aux pratiques d'irrigation dans une riziculture du Delta du fleuve Sénégal Travail de Fin d'Etudes Université de Liège. 65 pp.
Lacharme M: 2001. Le contrôle de la salinité dans les rizières: «Mémento Technique de Riziculture», V. 20 pp.
Allen R. G., Pereira L. S., Raes D. et Smith M. (1998)-Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper, vol. 56, Rome, 15 p.
Frank Raes “Entrainment of free tropospheric aerosols as a regulating mechanism for cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer”, First published: 20 February 1995, American Geophysical Union.
Hammecker C., A. C. D Antonio, J. L. Maegth et P. Boivin P. (2003) Experimental and numerical study of water flow in soil under irrigation in northern Senegal: evidence of air entrapment. Eur. J. Soil Sci., 54, 491-503.
Boivin P., D. Brunet, C. Gascuel-Odoux, P. Zante et J. P. Ndiaye (1995). Les sols argileux de la région de Nianga-Podor: répartition, caractéristiques, aptitudes et risques de dégradation sous irrigation. Dans Nianga, laboratoire de l’agriculture irriguée en moyenne vallée du Sénégal, BOIVIN P., DIA I, LERICOLLAIS A., POUSSIN J. C., SANTOIR C. et SECK S. M. [Éditeurs.], pp. 67-81.
Hammecker C., Van Asten P. J. A., Marlet S., Maeght J. L., Poss R. 2009. Simulating the evolution of soil solutions in irrigated rice soils in the Sahel. Geoderma, 150 (1-2): 129-140.
Ndiaye, M-K. 1987. Evaluation de la fertilité des sols 5 l’office du Niger (Mali). Contribution à la recherche des causes et origines de la dégradation des sols dans le kouroumari. Doctorat thèsis, INP Toulouse.
Barbiéro L. et Laperrousaz C., 1999. La cartographie de la salinité dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Succès d'une démarche ascendante. Colloque Geofcan, Géophysique des sols et des formations superficielles, 21-22 septembre 1999, Orléans (BRGM, INRA, IRD, UPMC).
Valles, V. (1987). étude et modÇlisation des transferts d‘eau et de sel dans un sol argileux. Application au calcul de doses d’irrigation, Sci. GÇol. MÇm., 79, 148 p.
Guédarri M. (1984). GÇochimie et thermodynamique des Çvaporites continentales. étude du lac Natron en Tanzanie et du Chott el Jerid en Tunisie, Sci. GÇol. MÇm., 76, 143 p.
Barbiéro Laurent. (1994). Les sols alcalinisés sur socle dans la vallée du fleuve Niger: origines de l'alcalinisation et évolution des sols sous irrigation. Rennes (FRA); Paris: ENSAR; INRA, 209 p. multigr. + 50 p. multigr. These Sci. de l'Environnement, ENSAR: Rennes. 1994/01/13.
Boivin P., Favre F. et Maegth J. L. (1998). Les sols de la moyenne vallée du Fleuve Sénégal: caractéristiques et évolution sous irrigation. Étude gestion sols, 5, 235-246.
Parkkurst, D. L., et Appelo, C. A. J., 1999, User's guide to PHREEQC (version 2)-a computer program for speciation, reaction-path, 1D-transport, and inverse geochemical calculations.: USGS. Water Resour. Inv. Rep. 99-4259, v. 312.
Wopereis, M. C. S., J. Ceuppens, J., Boivin, P., Ndiaye, A. M., et Kane, A., 1998, Preserving soil quality under irrigation in the Senegal River Valley: Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, v. 46, no. 1, p. 97-107.
Appelo, C. A. J., et Postma, D., 2005, Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, Rotterdam.
Abdelgader, A., Achour, F., et Mudry, J., 1996, Validation des écoulements par l'analyse discriminante: Revue des scicences de l'eau, v. 2, no. 219-230.
Madioune, D. H., 2012, Etude hydrogéologique du système aquifère du horst de Diass en condition d’exploitation intensive (bassin sédimentaire sénégalais): apport des techniques de télédétection, modélisation, géochimie et isotopie Thèse de Doctorat en Sciences de l'Ingénieur Université de Liège (ULG).
Boivin, P., et al., 2002, Processes driving soil solution chemistry in a flooded rice-cropped vertisol: analysis of long-time monitoring data: Geoderma, v. 110 (2002) no. 87-107.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186