The Water-Energy Nexus: Electrocoagulation and Energy Conservation
Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2018, Pages: 15-19
Received: Jul. 17, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2018; Published: May 18, 2018
Views 1539      Downloads 77
Avner Adin, Department of Soil and Water Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Article Tools
Follow on us
Electrocoagulation is a multiple-purpose process re-emerging nowadays as a low-energy solution to water treatment and pollution control problems. This paper describes the development of electrocoagulation-flocculation (ECF) treatment processes of water and wastewater that could be a potential hydrogen gas source and reduce operational costs as well. ECF coupling with ultrafiltration (UF) for organics removal and flux enhancement and, with granular filtration (GF) and constructed wetland (CW) for P removal from secondary effluents are examined. Bench-scale experiments of ECF-UF and ECF-UF configurations and ECF-GF-CW pilot tests had been performed. Analysis of ECF mechanisms leads to energy conservation potential via (a) hydrogen co-generation, (b) low voltage application, (c) reduced chemicals transportation (which is also helpful in less developed cold areas where and when roads are blocked) and (d) hybridization with other low energy treatment processes such as constructed wetlands or SAT. A model developed for energy minimization is found to play a major role in process selection. It is also concluded that ECF as pretreatment for UF and MF improved filtrate quality and reduced the fouling, particularly by reducing cake influence. And, complementing CW treatment with a physicochemical process of ECF reduces soluble and particulate phosphate, and removes organic matter and nitrogen compounds.
Electrocoagulation, Electroflocculation, Tertiary Treatment, Hydrogen Co-Generation, Water-Energy Nexus, Membrane Pretreatment
To cite this article
Avner Adin, The Water-Energy Nexus: Electrocoagulation and Energy Conservation, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2018, pp. 15-19. doi: 10.11648/j.wros.20180702.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mollah M. Y. A., Schennach R., Parga, J. R. & Cocke, D. L. (2001). Electrocoagulation (EC) - science and applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B84 29-41.
Mahesh S., B. Prasad, I. D. Mall and I. M. Mishra. 2006. Electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater. Part 1. COD and Color Removal. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 45 (8), 2830-2839.
Monser L. and Adhoum N. 2004. Decolourization and removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation. Separation and Purification Technology 38 (3) 233-239.
Ben-Sasson M. and Adin A. (2013). Enhanced removal of natural organic matter by hybrid process of electrocoagulation and dead-end microfiltration. Chemical Engineering Journal, 232, 338-345.
Meunier N., Drogui P., Montan´e C., Hausler R., Mercier G. and Blais F. G. 2006. Comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical precipitation for metals removal from acidic soil leachate. Journal of Hazardous Materials 137(1) 581–590.
Gao P., Chen X., Shen F. and Chen G., 2005. Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewater by combined electrocoagulation – electroflotation without a filter. Separation and Purification Technology 43 117–123.
Harif T. and Adin A. (2007). Characteristics of aggregates formed by electroflocculation of a colloidal suspension. Water Research, 41(13): 2951-2961.
Harif T., Khai M. and Adin A. (2012). Electrocoagulation versus chemical coagulation: coagulation/flocculation mechanisms and resulting floc characteristics. Water Research 46(10) 3177-88.
Sun J., Hu C., Tong T., Zhao K., Qu J., Liu H. and Elimelech M. (2017) Performance and Mechanisms of Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling Mitigation by Coupling Coagulation and Applied Electric Field in a Novel Electrocoagulation Membrane Reactor. Environmental Science and Technology 51, 8544−8551
Egozy Y. (1996). Water recirculation through biological filter for coastal streams rehabilitation in Israel. MSc thesis, The Hebrew University of Israel and Tel-Aviv University (in Hebrew).
Berenstein R., Chen Y. and Adin, A. (2007). Electrocoagulation of humic acid and its effect on membrane fouling reduction. IWA Particle Separation Conference, Amsterdam.
Hu, C., Sun, J., Wang, S., Liu, R., Liu, H. and Qu, J. (2017). Enhanced efficiency in HA removal by electrocoagulation through optimizing flocs properties: Role of current density and pH. Separation and Purification Technology 175, 248−254.
Ben-Sasson M. and Adin A. (2010). Fouling mitigation by iron-based electroflocculation in microfiltration: mechanisms and energy minimization, Water Research 44 3973-3981.
Sanyal O., Liu Z., Yu J., Meharg B. M., Hong J. S., Liao W. and Lee I. (2016). Designing fouling-resistant clay-embedded polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for wastewater effluent treatment. Journal of Membrane Science 512, 21-28.
Adin A. and Vescan N. (2002). Electroflocculation for particle destabilization and aggregation for municipal water and wastewater treatment. Proc. American Chemical Society 42(2) 537-541.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186