The Impact of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Waste Dump Soils in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
This study is based on the comparison of nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in soils from waste dump sites in mangrove and non mangrove forest i.e. municipal areas. Nine soil samples were collected randomly at three sites in each location with soil auger, 5 cm below the top soil (n = 18). The soils were placed in polyethylene bags and sent to the laboratory for physicochemical analysis for nutrients: Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Phosphorus (P) and Sulphate (SO4) and heavy metals: Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations. The metals were measured by UV/visible spectrophotometric method using HACH DR 890 colorimeter (wavelength ~ 420 nm). The result indicates that there was no significant difference in heavy metal concentration between mangrove and non mangrove soils (F1, 88 = 0.24, P > 0.05). However, heavy metals were higher in non-mangrove than in mangrove soil. Zinc had the highest overall concentration (37.9±6.7 mg/l) followed by Pb (12.7±3.1 mg/l) and Cu (10.0±1.4 mg/l) in non-mangrove soil, whereas Cd was ten times higher in mangrove (0.4±0.2 mg/l) than in non-mangrove (0.04±0.03 mg/l) soil. The order of heavy metal concentration in mangrove soil is Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd and in non-mangrove soil is Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. In contrast, there was a significant difference in nutrient concentration between mangrove and non-mangrove soils (F1, 88 = 4.39, P < 0.05). Similarly, nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mg, Mn and P) were higher in non-mangrove soil than mangrove soils while SO4 was higher in mangrove than in non-mangrove soil, The order of nutrient concentration in mangrove soil is Ca>Mg>K>SO4>Mn>P and in non-mangrove soil is Ca>Mg>K>Mn>SO4>P. There was a slight a positive correlation between the nutrient and heavy metal concentration (R2 = 0.016, n = 90, P = 0.001). Results show that municipal soil is more polluted with industrial waste than mangrove forest soil as a result of high anthropogenic activities. Thus harmful metals from mangrove and non mangrove soils can enter the food chain and drinking water source leading to adverse health effect.
Aroloye Ofo Numbere,
The Impact of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Waste Dump Soils in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2019, pp. 109-115.
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