American Journal of Energy Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 12-16
Received: Feb. 7, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 8, 2015;
Published: Feb. 27, 2015
Views 2978 Downloads 126
Manal A. Sorour, Food Engineering and Packaging Dept., Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Naglaa H. M. Hassanen, Special Food and Nutrition Dept., Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Mona H. M. Ahmed, Special Food and Nutrition Dept., Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Giza, Egypt
The effect of temperature on natural antioxidant changes in fresh and dried celery was studied. Celery herbs were dried at 50 and 90ᵒC using a laboratory scale hot air dryer. Fifteen phenolic components (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol , chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, caffeine , p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, salycilic acid, cinnamic acid, chrysin, pyrogallol, ellagic acid , catechin and caffeic acid), five flavonoids components were identified in celery herbs (apignen, hesperitin, luteolin, quercetrin and rosmarinic) and three isoflavones components were identified in celery herbs (daidzein, genistein and isorhamnetin) were identified in celery herbs at 50 and 90ᵒC. The chemical constituents of apium graveolens volatile oil were determined, the results observed that eleven components were isolated from apium graveolens essential oil and classified into five chemical categories namely, monocyclic terpenes (78.24%), bicyclic terpenes (14.88%), aliphatic hydrocarbons (1.79%), ketones (0.19) and sesquiterpene (2.89%). These identified compounds accounted for 97.99 % of the composition of apium graveolens essential oil. Organoleptic evaluation of Apium graveolens represented the mean scores and their statistical analysis indication for color, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability for biscuit treatments mixed with different concentrations of dried Apium graveolens at 50°C and 90°C.
Manal A. Sorour,
Naglaa H. M. Hassanen,
Mona H. M. Ahmed,
Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried celery (Apium graveolens), American Journal of Energy Engineering. Special Issue: Energy Conservation in Food Industry.
Vol. 3, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 12-16.
M. Keinänen and R. Julkunen-Tiitto, Effect of sample preparation method on birch (Betula pendula Roth leaf phenolics, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44: 2724–2727, 1996.
J. Pokorny, Addition of antioxidants for food stabilization to control oxidative rancidity, Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 4: 299–307, 1986.
D.O. Kim, S.W. Jeong and C. Y. Lee, Food Chem. 81:321–326, doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00423-5, 2003
G. Giuseppe, B. Davide, G. Claudia, Ugo Leuzzi and C. Corrado: Flavonoid Composition of Citrus Juices. Molecules, 12, 1641-1673, 2007
S. S. Fazal and R. K. Singla, Review on the Pharmacognostical & Pharmacological Characterization of Apium Graveolens Linn. Indo Global, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1): 36-42, 2012.
A. Schieber, P. Keller, R. Carle, Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high performance liquid chromatography system, J. of Chromatography A, 910:265-273, 2001.
D. Mantovani, L. C. Filho, L. C. Santos, V.L.F. de Souza and C.S. Watanabe, The use of HPLC identification and quantification of isoflavones content in samples obtained in pharmacies. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences. Maringá, v. 33, n. 1, pp. 7-10, 2011.
M. Guenther, The essential oils, Vol. III, IV, 4th Ed. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. Princeton, New Jersy. Tornto, New York, London, 1961.
Naglaa H.M. Hassanen and Gehad, F.A.Fath El-bab. Anti-microbial activities of Matricaria chamomilla L. flower. Egypt. J. Biomed. Sci., 37: 189-211, 2011.
M. A. Amerine, R. M. Panglorn, and Roessler, E. B. (): Principals of sensory evaluation of food”Academic Press, New York, 1965.
G.W. Snedecor and W.G. Cochran, Statistical methods.7th Ed., p. 420. Iowa Stat. Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1980.
A. Crozier, B. J. Indu and N. Michael, Dietary phenolics: chemistry, bioavailability and effects on health. Nat. Prod. Rep., 26, 1001–1043, 2009.
M. S. M. Manal and S. A. Sahar, The Effects of Purslane and Celery on Hypercholesterolemic Mice, World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 7 (2): 212-221, 2012.
Liga Priecina and Daina Karklina, Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables, International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering Vol. 8, No. 5, 480-484, 2014.
N. Balasundram, K. Sundram and S. Samman, Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses, Food Chemistry, 99, 191- 203, 2006.
A. Wach, K. Pyrzyn´ska and Magdalena Biesaga, Quercetin content in some food and herbal samples. Food Chemistry 100 :699–704, 2007.
Misic Dusan, Irena Zizovic, Marko Stameni, Ruzica Asanin, Mihailo Risti, Slobodan Petrovi and Dejan Skala, Antimicrobial activity of celery fruit isolates and SFE process modeling Biochemical Engineering Journal, 42, 148–152, 2008.
O. O. Okoh, A. P. Sadimenko, O. T. Asekun and A. J. Afolayan, The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (10), pp. 1500-1502, 2008.
Lawiess and Julia, The Encyclopaedia of essential oils.Published in Great Britain in 1992 by Element Books Limited Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset, pp.81-84 and 103-105, 1992.
Van Wassenhove, F., Dirinck, P., Vulsteke, G. and Schamp, N., Aromatic volatile composition of celery and celeriac cultivars. Hort. Sci., 25, 556-559, 1990
Fazal, S. S., Ansari, M. M., Singla, R. K., Khan, S., Isolation of 3-n-Butyl Phthalide & Sedanenolide from Apium graveolens Linn. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(3): 258-261, 2012.