Biodiesel Production from Unrefined Palm Oil on Pilot Plant Scale
International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages: 11-21
Received: Dec. 19, 2014; Accepted: Jan. 6, 2015; Published: Feb. 2, 2015
Views 3243      Downloads 482
Authors
Jean Baptiste Nduwayezu, Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (IRST), P.O. Box 227 Butare, Rwanda
Theoneste Ishimwe, Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (IRST), P.O. Box 227 Butare, Rwanda
Ananie Niyibizi, Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (IRST), P.O. Box 227 Butare, Rwanda
Alexis Munyentwali, Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (IRST), P.O. Box 227 Butare, Rwanda
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
As global warming and climate change issues are defying modern society sustainable development; biofuels, biodiesel included, are among promising solutions. Biodiesel is generally produced from renewable vegetable oils and animal fats via acid or base catalyzed transesterification. Depending on regional availability, biodiesel production feedstocks vary from vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, soya oil, palm oil, and jatropha oil, to used cooking oil and animal fats, with each type of feedstock presenting its own process challenges rooting from its chemical composition. This paper reports about biodiesel production from crude palm oil on a pilot plant scale, subsequent to a laboratory scale investigation of biodiesel synthesis from various vegetable oil feedstocks. Prior to transesterification, pretreatment processes have been applied due to the fact that crude palm oil as a biodiesel feedstock possesses a high free fatty acid(FFA) content, water, solid impurities and waxes, all of which hinder an efficient transesterification if not dealt with accordingly. Those processes are mainly filtering, water evaporation, and FFA esterification which is done with 99.9% methanol and 96% sulfuric acid as a catalyst. In fact, the acid esterification process successfully handles the raw palm oil despite its high FFA content of 16.9%, and biodiesel is produced from that feedstock with a yield of 90.4%. A two steps transesterification is carried out using potassium methylate 32% in methanol as a catalyst and anhydrous methanol too. Laboratory analyses have also been used to monitor the process and assess the final product quality. Furthermore, biodiesel cold filtering and top layer intake tank systems of a filling station, both proved to be efficient at helping to obtain a refined product by getting rid of suspensions appearing in biodiesel at room temperature due to sterol glucosides and waxes.
Keywords
Biodiesel, Palm Oil, FFA, Acid Esterification, Transesterification, Environmental Friendly, Biodiesel Sediments
To cite this article
Jean Baptiste Nduwayezu, Theoneste Ishimwe, Ananie Niyibizi, Alexis Munyentwali, Biodiesel Production from Unrefined Palm Oil on Pilot Plant Scale, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 11-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20150401.13
References
[1]
Adriana G., Marious R., Monica T.¸ Csaba P. and Florin D. I.(2012). Biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification e Current state and perspectives. Renewable Energy . 39: 10-16.
[2]
Rincón L.E., Jaramilo J.J., Cardona C.A.(2014). Comparison of feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production: An environmental and techno-economic evaluation. Renewable Energy. 69: p. 479-487.
[3]
USDA. OIlseeds: World Market and Trade. (2014).P: 7.
[4]
Frank R.C., Luc. P., and Arnaldo W. A global overview of vegetable oils, with reference to biodiesel. (2009). IEA, London. P: 9,19.
[5]
FOE.(2006).The use of palm oil for biofuel and as biomass for energy. Available from: www.foe.co.uk/sites/default/files/.../palm_oil_biofuel_position.pdf. Accessed on 12/8/2014.
[6]
Atadashi I.M., Aroua M.K., Abdul Aziz A.R., Sulaiman N.M.N. (2012). Production of biodiesel using high free fatty acid feedstocks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16: 3275-3285.
[7]
Antolin G., Tinaut V.F., Briceno Y., Castano V., Perez C., and Ramırez A.I.(2002). Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification. Bioresour Technol. 83:111-114.
[8]
Huang G., Chen F., Wei D., Zhang X.W., and Chen G.(2010). Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology. Appl Energy . 87: 38-46).
[9]
ACET. (2013). The Oil Palm Value Capture Opportunity in Africa. Accra, Ghana. P: 11.
[10]
Gerhard K., Jon V.G., and Jurgen K. The Biodiesel Handbook, 2005. AOCS Press. Illinois-USA. pp.9,15,55 and 236.
[11]
Szulczyk K.R., The economics of malaysian palm oil industry and its biodiesel potential.(2013). Social Science Research network.
[12]
Rutz D., Rainer J., Biofuels Technology Handbook.( 2007). WIP renewable energies: Munich-Germany. p. 73,78,87.
[13]
Poku K., Small Scale Palm Oil Processing in Africa.( 2002). FAO.p: 9,11.
[14]
Caye M. D., Nghiem P.N., Terry H.W., Biofuel Engineering Process Technology 1st ed.( 2008). McGraw-Hill Professional, New York. p. 197-200,202-204.
[15]
Jawad N., Syed K., Farrukh N.(2008). Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the Energy Demands of the Future. ICCBT. F(07): 79-94.
[16]
Nyanjou R.N.(2008). Modernisation and Innovation of Palm Oil Extraction Process: The Palm Nut, Its By-products and Its Properties, in IAALD -AFITA -WCCA World Conference On Agricultural Information And IT . Tokyo.
[17]
Moser B.R., Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks.(2009). In Vitro Cell .Dev.Bio.-Plant. 45:229-266.
[18]
Inmok L, Lisa M.P., George B.P., Erica P., and Troy H.(2007). The Role of Sterol Glucosides on Filter Plugging. Biodiesel Magazine. Available on http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/articles/1566/the-role-of-sterol-glucosides-on-filter-plugging/. Accessed on 15/09/2014.
[19]
Refaat A.A.(2009). Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil. International Journal of environmental science and technology.7 (1):183- 213 .
[20]
Alemayehu G., Abile T. (2014). Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil and factors affecting its formation: A review. International Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 3(5): 92-98.
[21]
Khalid Khalizani, Khalisanni Khalid.(2011). Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 8 (8): 804-809.
[22]
Roger A., Isabel A., Ulf H., Green Chemistry and catalysis,2006.wiley. p373.
[23]
Sharma Y.C., Sing.B.(2009). Development of biodiesel: current scenario. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 13:1646:51.
[24]
Falconer A. (2003).Gravity separation: old technique/ new methods. Physical separation in science and engineering. 12(1): 31-48.
[25]
Godlisten G.K., Abraham.K.T., Hassan M.R., Godwill D.M., Jibrail K.,and Keat T.(2013). Pre-Treatment of High Free Fatty Acids Oils by Chemical Re-Esterification for Biodiesel Production: A Review. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science.3: 242-247.
[26]
Freedman B., Pryde E.H., and Mounts T.L. (1984).Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 61: 1638-1643.
[27]
Dennis Y.C.L., Xuan W., Leung M.K.H.(2010). A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Applied Energy. 87 :1083–1095.
[28]
Kansedo J, Lee K.T, Bhatia S.C.O. (2009). Oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 88:1148–50.
[29]
Srivastava A., Ram. P.(200). Triglycerides-Based Diesel Fuels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.4:111-33.
[30]
Europian Committee for Standardization.(2003). Fat and oil dereivatives-Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)-Determination of acid Value, in EN14104: 2003E. Swedish Standards Institute. P: 3-7.
[31]
Lotero E, Liu Y., Lopez D.E.,Suwannakarn K., Bruce D.A, Goodwin J.G. Jr.(2005). Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis. Ind.Eng. Chem. Res. 44:5353-5363.
[32]
Young R.(2008). Field Test Equipments Enhances Quality Assuarance. Biodiesel Magazine .p :3.
[33]
ISO. European Standards (2000). Petrolium products – Determination of water – Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method(ISO 129:2000).CEN.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186