Energy Efficiency Evaluation from the Combustion of Selected Briquettes-Derived Agro-waste with Paper and Starch Binders
International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 71-79
Received: Apr. 21, 2016; Accepted: Apr. 29, 2016; Published: Jul. 29, 2016
Views 3650      Downloads 120
Authors
Godson Rowland Ana, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Victor Tolulope Fabunmi, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
A lot of agricultural residues and wastes generated in the country are improperly utilized and poorly managed. The bulk is left to decompose or blazed, resulting in environmental pollution and degradation. Studies have shown that briquetting provides a means of managing this waste as fuels however, energy efficiency of this process has not been investigated extensively. This study investigated the energy efficiency associated with combustion of selected briquettes-derived agro-waste. An experimental design was adopted that involved comparing the energy efficiency from the combustion of biomass briquettes of sawdust (SD) from different trees, rice husk (RH), coconut shell (CS) and corncob (CC) with paper (p) and starch (s) binders with wood (control). Energy parameters which include calorific value (CV), bulk density (BD), and energy density (ED) were measured. Energy efficiency parameters such as water boiling time (WBT), Mass of biomass used (MB), Burning Time (BT), Burning rate (BR) and Recoverable energy (RE) from the combustion of 0.5kg mass of each of the briquette treatments in comparison with the wood was obtained. The energy parameters of the biomass briquettes ranged 12.3 – 19.6 kJ/g, 0.27 – 0.75 g/cm3 and 3.9 – 13 KJ/cm3 for CV, BD and ED respectively. The ranges of the thermal properties based on the water boiling test carried out included water boiling time, mass of biomass used and burning time were 7.75 – 62.5 min, 150 – 390 g and 53.5 – 143 min respectively. Although sawdust briquettes took least time to boil water, coconut briquettes burned efficiently in terms of material conservation and duration of burning. Therefore coconut and sawdust briquettes are both viable alternative fuel sources to firewood.
Keywords
Agrowaste, Biomass Briquettes, Energy Efficiency, Water Boiling Test
To cite this article
Godson Rowland Ana, Victor Tolulope Fabunmi, Energy Efficiency Evaluation from the Combustion of Selected Briquettes-Derived Agro-waste with Paper and Starch Binders, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2016, pp. 71-79. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20160504.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Akande, S. O. and Olorunfemi, F. B. 2009. Research and development potentials in Biofuels production in Nigeria. African Resource Review 3.3: 34-45.
[2]
Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycle. 15: 955–966.
[3]
Chin, C. O. and Siddiqui, K. M. 2000. Characteristics of Some Biomass Briquettes Prepared Under Modest Die Pressures, Biomass and Bioenergy. 18: 223-228.
[4]
CIA. 2012. The World factbook: Nigeria. http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world -factbook/index.html. Accessed 24th August 2012
[5]
Demirbas A. and Sahin A. 1998. “Evaluation of Biomass Residue 1. Briquetting Waste Paper and Wheat Straw Mixtures. Fuel Processing Technology. 55: 175-183.
[6]
Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN). 2008. Communiqué of National workshop on sustainable Jatropha for energy development. 6th -7th May, Mambayya house, Kano. www.energy.gov.ng.
[7]
Grainger, L. and Gibson, J. 1981. Coal Utilization Technology: Economics and Policy. Published by Graham and Trotman Limited, 3-7.
[8]
Grover, P. D. and Mishra, S. K. 1996. Biomass Briquetting, Technology and Practices. Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia. FAO: Bangkok, Thailand.
[9]
Husain, Z., Zainac, K. and Abdullah, Z. 2002. Briquetting of Palm Fibre and Shell from the Processing of Palm Nuts to Palm Oil. Journal on Biomass and Bio Energy 22: 505-509.
[10]
IEA. 2012. Energy balance for Nigeria. OECD/IEA. http:// data.iea.org. Accessed 1st September 2012.
[11]
Iwayemi, A. 2008. Nigeria's dual energy problems: Policy issues and challenges. International Association of Energy Economics. 53: 17-21.
[12]
Jekayinfa, S. O. and Omisakin, O. O. 2005. The energy potentials of some agricultural wastes as local fuel materials in Nigeria 2005 Agricultural Engineering International. The CIGR E-Journal of Scientific Research and Development 3.05 003: 10.
[13]
Jekayinfa, S. O. and Scholz, V. 2009. Potential Availability of Energetically Usable Crop Residues in Nigeria. Energy Sources. 31: 687-697.
[14]
Martin, J. F., Pineda, J. M. and Ocreto, A. 2008. Design and development of charcoal briquetting machine. USM R & D. 16 (2): 85-90.
[15]
Matti, J., Niko, K. and Petri, P. 2005. Emission Scenarios for Particulate Matter Research and Policy Assessment in Finland.
[16]
McKendry, P. 2002. Energy production from biomass (part 2): Conversion technologies. Bioresource Technology. 83: 47-54.
[17]
Medhiyanon T., Sathitruangsak P., Sungworagan, S., and Soponronnarit S. 2006. Solid Fuel Producing from Rubber Wood Char and Corn-Cob Char by Extrusion Technique Using Paste as Binder. In proceeding of the 20th Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand, October 18-20, 2006, Nakhonrajasima.
[18]
Moore, W. and Johnson, D. 1999. Procedure for the Chemical Analysis of Wood and Wood Products, Modison WL: US. Forest Products Laboratory, Department of Agriculture.
[19]
Ndiema, C., Manga, P. and Ruttoh, R. 2002. Densification and Characteristics of Rice Straw Briquettes. Journal of the Institute of Energy 75: 11-13.
[20]
Obi, O. F., C. O. Akubuo and W. I. Okonkwo, 2013. Development of an Appropriate Briquetting Machine for Use in Rural Communities. International Journal of Engineering Advanced Technology. 2 (4): 578-582.
[21]
Ohunakin, O. S. 2010. Energy utilization and renewable energy sources in Nigeria. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 5.2: 171–177.
[22]
Okoye, J. K. 2007. Background Study on Water and Energy Issues in Nigeria. The National Consultative Conference on Dams and Development.
[23]
Oladeji, J. T. 2012. Comparative Study of Briquetting of Few Selected Agro-Residues Commonly Found in Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 13.2: 80-86.
[24]
Oladeji, J. T., Enweremadu, C. C. and Olafimihan, E. O. 2009. Conversion of Agricultural Wastes into Biomass Briquette. International Journal of Agronomy and Agriculture. 5.2: 116-123.
[25]
Olorunnisola, A., 2007. Production of fuel briquettes from waste paper and coconut husk admixtures. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR E. Journal., IX: 1-11.
[26]
Onaji, P. B. and Siemons, R. V. 1993. Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Cotton Stalks in Malawi: Methodology for Feasibility Studies using Experiences in Sudan. Biomass and Bioenergy. 4: 199-211.
[27]
Sambo, A. S., 2009. Strategic Developments in Renewable Energy in Nigeria. International Association for Energy Economics. 15–19.
[28]
Sharma, R. K., Wakchaure, G. C. and Samuel, D. V. K. 2006. Effect of Material and Binders on Storage and Burning Quality of Biomass Briquettes. Journal of Agricultural Engineering. 43.4: 71-74.
[29]
Simonyan K. J. and Fasina, O. 2013. Biomass resources and bioenergy potentials in Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8.40: 4975-4989.
[30]
Wamukonya L. and Jenkins B. 1995. “Durability and Relaxation of Sawdust and Wheat-Straw Briquettes as Possible Fuels for Kenya. Biomass and Bioenergy. 8: 175-179.
[31]
Yaman S., Sahan M., Haykiri-Acma H., Sesen K., and Kucukbayrak S. 2000. “Production of Fuel Briquettes form Olive Refuse and Paper Mill Waste. Fuel Processing Technology. 68: 23-31.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186