Hydrogen Production by the Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol over Nickel-Based Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications
The bio-ethanol steam reforming over nickel-based catalysts when the temperature is within the range of 700 to 800 K is studied for fuel cell applications. The effect of operating conditions such as the temperature, space time, water-to-ethanol molar ratio, and oxygen-to-ethanol molar ratio on the product distribution is evaluated. The water-gas shift reaction is examined in the reforming process. Adjusting feed ratios to favor carbon removal from the surface is discussed in detail. It is shown that a nickel-supported-on-alumina catalyst completely converts bio-ethanol and high hydrogen yields are obtained. High temperatures and water-to-ethanol ratios can promote hydrogen production. There is no evidence that the water-gas shift reaction occurs over nickel-based catalysts. Carbon formation can be minimized by using high water-to-ethanol ratios. The presence of oxygen in the feed plays a favorable effect on the carbon deposition, but the carbon monoxide production is not reduced. There are several reaction pathways that could occur in the bio-ethanol steam reforming process, and the catalyst produces ethylene and acetaldehyde as intermediate products. The region of carbon formation depends on the temperature as well as the water-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol molar ratios. Finally, an overall reaction scheme as a function of temperature is proposed. The best catalysts appear to be those that are sufficiently basic to inhibit the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene, which subsequently polymerizes and causes coke formation.
Hydrogen Production by the Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol over Nickel-Based Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2017, pp. 28-38.
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