International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy
Volume 4, Issue 1-1, January 2015, Pages: 1-6
Received: Oct. 29, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 7, 2014;
Published: Jan. 11, 2015
Views 4185 Downloads 217
Yuwalee Unpaprom, Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
Sawitree Tipnee, Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
Ramaraj Rameshprabu, School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand
Renewable fuels for alternative energy sources have been paid a great attention in recent years. Biodiesel has been gaining worldwide popularity as an alternative energy source. The production of biofuels from microalgae, especially biodiesel, has gained huge popularity in the recent years, and it is assumed that, due to its eco-friendly and renewable nature, it can replace the need of fossil fuels. Scenedesmus genus was discussed by phycologists as promising microalgae for biofuel production based on its biomass and fatty acid productivity. In the present study, S. acuminatus was cultivated in piggery wastewater effluent to couple waste treatment with biodiesel production. The batch feeding operation by replacing 10% of algae culture with Piggery wastewater effluent every day could provide a stable net biomass productivity of 3.24 g L−1 day−1. The effect of acid hydrolysis of lipids from S. acuminatus on FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) production was investigated. Direct transesteriﬁcation (a one-stage process) of the as harvested S. acuminatus biomass resulted in a higher bio-diesel yield content than that in a two-stage process. This study results revealed that it is feasible to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae biomass directly without the steps of drying and lipid extraction.
Biodiesel from Green Alga Scenedesmus acuminatus, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Special Issue: Renewable Energy Applications in the Agricultural Field and Natural Resource Technology.
Vol. 4, No. 1-1,
2015, pp. 1-6.
B. R. Moser, “Proposed technological improvements to ensure biodiesel’s continued survival as a significant alternative to diesel fuel”, Biofuels, 2014, 5: 5–8.
L. C. Meher, D. Vidya Sagar, S. N. Naik, “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2006, 10: 248–268.
K. Bozbas, “Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: production and policies in the European Union”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2008, 12: 542–552.
E. M. Shahid, Y. Jamal, “Production of biodiesel: a technical review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2011, 15: 4732–4745.
Á. Sánchez, R. Maceiras, Á. Cancela, A Pérez, “Culture aspects of Isochrysis galbana for biodiesel production”, Applied Energy, 2013, 101: 192–197.
X. Yu, P. Zhao, C. He, J. Li, X. Tang, J. Zhou, Z. Huang, “Isolation of a novel strain of Monoraphidium sp. and characterization of its potential application as biodiesel feedstock”, Bioresource Technology, 2012, 121: 256–262.
G. Zaimes, V. Khanna, “Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts”, Biotechnol Biofuels, 2013, 6:88.
H.-Y. Ren, B.-F. Liu, C. Ma, L. Zhao, N.-Q. Ren, “A new lipid-rich microalga Scenedesmus sp. Strain R-16 isolated using Nile red staining: effects of carbon and nitrogen sources and initial pH on the biomass and lipid production”, Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2013, 6:143.
A. Demirbas, M. F. Demirbas, “Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel”, Energy Conversion and Management, 2011, 52: 163–70.
X. Zhang, J. Rong, H. Chen, C. He. Q. Wang, “Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection”, Frontiers in Energy Research, 2014, 2: 32.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Algae Growth in Natural Water Resources”, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2010, 42: 439–450.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Chlorophyll is not accurate measurement for algal biomass”, Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 2013, 40: 547–555.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “An exploration of the relationships between microalgae biomass growth and related environmental variables”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 2014, 135: 44–47.
R. Ramaraj, D. D-W. Tsai, P. H. Chen, “Freshwater microalgae niche of air carbon dioxide mitigation”, Ecological Engineering, 2014; 68: 47–52.
M. K. Kim, J. W. Park, C. S. Park, S. J. Kim, K. H. Jeune, M. U. Chang, J. Acreman, “Enhanced production of Scenedesmus spp. (green microalgae) using a new medium containing fermented swine wastewater”, Bioresource Technology, 2007, 98: 2220–2228.
J. K. Pittman, A. P. Dean, O. Osundeko, “The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources”, Bioresource Technology, 2011, 102: 17–25.
L. Xin, H. Hong-Ying, Y. Jia, “Lipid accumulation and nutrient removal properties of a newly isolated freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus sp. LX1, growing in secondary effluent”, New Biotechnology, 2009, 27(1): 59–63.
L. Rodolfi, G. C. Zittelli, N. Bassi, G. Padovani, N. Biondi, G. Bonini, M. R. Tredici, “Microalgae for oil: strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2009, 102: 100–112.
S. Kant, P. Gupta, “Algal Flora of Ladakh”. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, 1998, p.341.
APHA, AWWA, WPCF, “Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st ed. APHA-AWWA-WPCF, Washington, DC, 2005.
E. G. Bligh, W. J. Dyer, “A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification”, Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 1959, 37: 911–917.
S. Thomæus, A. S. Carlsson, S. Stymne, “Distribution of fatty acids in polar and neutral lipids during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana genetically engineered to produce acetylenic, epoxy and hydroxyl fatty acids”, Plant Science, 2001, 161: 997–1003.
R. A. Abou-Shanab, M. K. Ji, H. C. Kim, K. J. Paeng, and B. H. Jeon, “Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production”, Journal of Environmental Management, 2013, 115: 257–264.
L. Zhu, Z. Wang, Q. Shu, J. Takala, E. Hiltunen, P. Feng, “Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment”, Water Research, 2013, 47: 4294–4302.
L. Lardon, A. Helias, B. Sialve, J. Steyer, O. Bernard “Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae”, Environmental Science and Technology, 2009, 43: 6475–6481.
P. Hidalgo, C. Toro, G. Ciudad, R. Navia, “Advances in direct transesterification of microalgal biomass for biodiesel production”, Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 2013, 12: 179–199.
T. R. S. Baumgartner, J. A. M. Burak, D. Baumgartner, G. M. Zanin, P. A. Arroyo, “Biomass production and ester synthesis by in situ transesterification/esterification using the microalga Spirulina platensis”, International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2013, 425604: 1–7.