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Mirror Neurons: Fire to Inspire
International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 40-44
Received: Sep. 16, 2016; Accepted: Sep. 29, 2016; Published: Nov. 3, 2016
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Authors
Ammara Bakht, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
Nasia Shakeel, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
Hifza Khan, Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
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Abstract
Mirror neurons got a great deal of attention from connoisseurs and in scientific reports. Mirror neurons have the capability of observation and execution of action to code both “my action and your action”. Firstly they were found in an area of f5 region of ventral premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule of monkey brain. Mirror neuron system (MNS) is the driving force behind the great leap forward in human evolution. Both monkeys and human are born with MNS. Sensory or motor experience may trigger the development of mirror neurons. Adult group show an intrinsic difference between goal directed and non –goal directed action observation condition. Recently neurons with mirror characteristics have been found outside the rostral part of inferior parietal lobule and inferior frontal gyrus. Human neuroimaging experiments confirm a wide overlap between cortical areas in human and areas where mirror neurons have been reported in macaque monkey. Still there is a lack of studies about MNS in neurosurgical patients so the goal is to describe the application of an fMRI protocol to identify the MNS in patient with mass lesion in premotor area. The goal of this review was to give a brief explanation of MNS covering their origin, observation, execution, innateness, evolution, development, empathy and recent developments like fMRI, neuroimaging and mapping.
Keywords
MNS, BOLD, fMRI, PMC, TMS, IPL, Motor Cortex, EEG, LFP
To cite this article
Ammara Bakht, Nasia Shakeel, Hifza Khan, Mirror Neurons: Fire to Inspire, International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 40-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpbs.20160103.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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