Banking Sector Credit Development and Investment Productivity in Nigeria
International Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization
Volume 1, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages: 61-68
Received: Dec. 2, 2013; Published: Jan. 20, 2014
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Authors
Ogbuagu, Uchechi Rex, Department of Economics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Chijioke, Mercy Ihuoma, Department of Economics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Udah, EnangBassey, Department of Economics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
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Abstract
In Nigeria, commercial bank credit represent almost 90 percent of the financial system assets and about two-thirds of the total credit is allocated to the private sector. Financing of investments through the credit market system portends that investments are associated with a level of productivity. Thus a developed credit market that efficiently utilizes its resources will contribute optimally to economic development. One will expect that increased earnings will lead to increased availability of credits and therefore a better developed credit market but our experience is to the contrary. In contrast, it is difficult to explain the low rate of development registered in most African countries including Nigeria in comparison to the quantum of export earnings they receive. In particular, Nigeria earned enormous revenue from crude petroleum export during oil boom years yet development in Nigeria crawls. This study therefore examined the relationship between credit market development as measured by bank sector credit ratio to GDP and investment productivity, measured as ratio of GDP to Gross Domestic Investment, GDI in Nigeria using data from 1970-2010 and standard econometric method of error correction mechanism. We observed that the improvement in the banking sector reforms ranging from structural adjustment programme (SAP) to the present consolidation era has not been translated to credit market development. This is attributed to inefficient utilization of credit market funds which results in low level of per capita income, low level of investment and ultimately poorly developed banking credit market in Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, the following policy implications can be drawn: increase in deposit rate will encourage savings, promote credit market development and increase investment. Similarly; a reduction in lending rate will encourage borrowing for capital project financing that will lead to increased investment productivity, increased output, better use of the bank credit market and hence a better developed credit market. Through this, development in the credit market can contribute significantly to economic development via investment productivity. There is the need to increase per capita income through encouraged participation in credit market investment. Thus returns on investment in the credit market should be improved. At present people prefer to spend their money on consumption goods because of the discouraging low deposit rate in the banks. Improved deposit rate will definitely improve investment productivity and economic development through the multiplier process. Foreign direct investment was found to encourage investment productivity; policy should be geared towards attracting more FDI in Nigeria.
Keywords
Banking Sector, Credit Market Development, Investment Productivity, Foreign Direct Investment, Financing
To cite this article
Ogbuagu, Uchechi Rex, Chijioke, Mercy Ihuoma, Udah, EnangBassey, Banking Sector Credit Development and Investment Productivity in Nigeria, International Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 1, No. 6, 2013, pp. 61-68. doi: 10.11648/j.ijebo.20130106.12
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