Determinants of Effective Monitoring and Evaluation System of Public Health Programs: A Case Study of School-Based Hand Washing Program in Kwale County, Kenya
The main objective of the study was to identify determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of public health programs, a case study of School based hand washing project in Kwale County which is implemented by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and other partners. Monitoring and evaluation is an essential and critical undertaking in any project or program. It assists the management to learn about their own activities and results, to support internal planning and development and accountability to their stakeholders. Organisations/programs need evidence of their efficiency and effectiveness for funders, commissioners and investors or generally all the stakeholders. Monitoring and evaluation is critical to public health programs locally and globally, as donors, governments, and other relevant stakeholders must validate their investments and improve program performance. Globally evaluation and repeated monitoring of a range of indicators reflecting hand hygiene infrastructures and practices is a vital component of any successful hand hygiene campaign. The data for the study was collected using descriptive research design where questionnaires were administered to team leaders, supervisors and other personnel who were involved in implementing the project to demonstrate associations or relationships between the variables. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was used to analyze the data, descriptive statistics was used for data presentation. The study concluded that project human resource plays a vital role in monitoring and evaluation of public health programs and the project team should be composed of specialized staffs that are properly trained to conduct monitoring and evaluation. According to the study, key informants were aware and knowledgeable of hand washing project in Kwale County. For monitoring and evaluation systems to be functional properly, advocacy strategies need to be developed and supported within the organization. Also a culture to support monitoring and evaluation should be developed within the organization. The study made some recommendations which included involvement of all the stakeholders in School based hand washing project as this will assist in strengthening monitoring and evaluation unit, advocacy strategies on School based hand washing project in Kwale County needed some improvement.
Lamech Otieno Okello,
Determinants of Effective Monitoring and Evaluation System of Public Health Programs: A Case Study of School-Based Hand Washing Program in Kwale County, Kenya, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 235-251.
Adams, J., Bartram, J., Chartier., Y., & Sims, J. (2009).Water, sanitation and hygiene standards for schools in low-cost settings. Geneva, WHO.
Adkins, B., & Caldwell, D. (2004). "Firm or subgroup culture: Where does fitting in matter most?”. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25(8) pp. 969–978.
Aitchison, J. (1998). Access to books and journal articles by post-graduate students on a course-work Masters’ programme in Information Studies at the University of Natal, 146 Pietermaritzburg. MIS Thesis. Department of Information Studies, University of Natal.
Alkin, M. C. (2004). Evaluation roots. Thousand Oaks: Sage. (Ed.) (2004a
Amanda, J. T. (2010). The Lambeth cholera outbreak of 1848-1849: the setting, causes, course and aftermath of an epidemic in London. McFarland. pp. 55–6. ISBN 978-0-7864-3989-8. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding Organizational Culture. Sage Publications, London.
Aubel, J. (1999). “Participatory Program Evaluation Manual – Involving Program Stakeholders in the Evaluation Process”, Catholic Relief Services, Child Survival and Technical Support Project, Second Edition, December 1999.
Bamberger, M. (2009) Institutionalizing Impact Evaluation within the Framework of a Monitoring and Evaluation System. Washington, DC: IEG.
Baron-Cohen, S., & Hammer, J. (1997). Parents of children with Asperger Syndrome: what is the cognitive phenotype? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 548-554.
Bate, P. (1995). Strategies for Cultural Change. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Bickman, L. (1987). The functions of program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 33, 5-18.
Bless, C., & Higson-Smith, C. (2000). Fundamentals of social research methods (3rd ed.).An African perspective. Cape Town: Juta.
Bowen, G. L. (2007). Social organization and schools: A general systems theory perspective. In P. Allen-Meares, Social work services in schools (5th ed., pp. 60-80). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Brickman, L., & Rog., J. D, (1998).Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bundy, D.A., & Guyatt., H.L. (1995). The health of school age children: report of a workshop. Parasitology Today, 13:438-443.
Burman, R. and Evans, A.J. (2008). "Target Zero: A Culture of safety", Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal, pp. 22–27.
Chen, H. T. (1990).Theory-driven evaluations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Chen, H. T., & Rossi, P. H. (1983). Evaluating with sense: The theory-driven approach. Evaluation Review, 7, 283-302.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage
Chitere, O. P., & Ireri, O.N. (2004). District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: It’s Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory planning strategy and prospects for the future. Nairobi: Institute for Policy Analysis and Research.
Collings, D. G., & Wood, G. (2009). Human resource management: A critical approach. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 1-16). London: Routledge.
Cooper, D.R., & Schindler, P.S. (2003). Business Research Methods. (8thed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Crawford, P., & Bryce P. (2003): Project Monitoring and Evaluation: A method of enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5): 363 – 373
Curtis, V., & Cairncross, S. (2003). Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, May 2003, pp 275-281.
Davidson, J. (2000). 10 Minute Guide to Project Management. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. (ISBN 0-02-863966-9)
Davis, S.M. (1984). Managing Corporate Culture. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA.
Donaldson, S., & Lipsey, M. (2003). Roles for Theory in Contemporary Evaluation Practice: Developing Practical Knowledge, Evaluating Social Programs and Problems. Mahwah, NT: Erlbaum
Drake LJ, Bundy DA. (2001). Multiple helmenthes infections in children: impact and control, Parasitology 122:S73-81.
Dyal, W. (1995).Ten organizational practices of public health: a historical perspective. Am J Prev Med 1995; 11(6) Suppl 2:6-8. WW.
Eskerod, P., Skriver, H. J. (2007). Organizational Culture Restraining In-House Knowledge Transfer Between Projects Managers - A Case Study. Project Management Journal. 38 (1), pp. 110-122.
Fewtrell L et al. (2005). Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2005, 5(1):42–52 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01253-8.
Freeman, M., L., & Greene, et al. (2011). "Assessing the impact of a school based water treatment, hygiene, and sanitation program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A cluster randomized trial." Tropical Medicine & International Health doi: 10.1111/j.13653156.2011.02927.x. [Epub ahead of print].
Funnel, S. (1997). Program logic: An adaptable tool for designing and evaluating programs. Evaluation News & Comment, 5-17.
Gargani, J. (2003). The history of theory-based evaluation: 1909 to 2003. Paper presented at the American Evaluation Association annual conference, Reno, NV.
Gillham, B. (2008). Developing a questionnaire (2nd ed.). London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd.
Glass, G.V., & Hopkins, K.D. (1984).Statistical methods in education and psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gosling, L., & Cohen, D. (2007).Advocacy Matters: Helping children change their world. An International Save the Children Alliance guide to advocacy, Save the children UK.
Gray, D. E. (2009). Doing research in the real world (2nd ed.). London, England: Sage.
Guilford, J.P. & Frucher, B .(1973). Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, New York: MC Graw-Hill does cite Slovin (1960).
Hellawell, J.M. (1991). Development of rationale for monitoring. Pg. 1-14 in Goldsmith, B. (ed.) Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. Chapman and Hall, London.
International Journal on Environmental Health. (2007).Monitoring progress of the role of integration of environmental health education with water and sanitation services in changing community behaviours. Int J Environ Health Res. 2007; 17:61–74. [PubMed].
Johnason, P. (2009). HRM in changing organizational contexts. In D. G. Collings & G. Wood (Eds.), Human resource management: A critical approach (pp. 19-37). London: Routledge.
Jones, M. (2007) ‘Integrating Stakeholder Theory and Strategic Management’. Paper presented at the IABS 2007 conference, Florence, May.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology. New Age International. New Delhi. India.Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques. (Second Revised Edition), New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.
Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work. Glenview, IL:Scott Forseman.
Kvale, S. (1996).Interviews. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.
Lavinghouze, R., Price, A.W., & Smith, K.A.(2007). The Program Success Story: A Valuable Tool for Program Evaluation. Health Promotion Practice, 2007; 8(4): 323–331.
Lewis, J. P. (1995). Fundamentals of project management. New York: Amacom.
Leedy, P.D.(1989).Practical Research: Planning and Design.London:Collier,Macmillan
Lundy, O., & Cowling, A. (1996) Strategic human resource management. London: Routledge.
Lusthaus, C. (1995). Institutional Assessment: A Framework for Strengthening Organizational Capacity for IDRC's Research Partners. Ottawa: IDRC.
Martins, E.C., & Terblanche, F. (2003). Building organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation.. European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 64-74
Marshall, P. L. (2002). Cultural Diversity in Our Schools. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Maull, R.., Brown, P., & Cliffe, R. (2001). Organisational culture and quality improvement. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 302-326.
May,. K. M. (1991).Interview techniques in qualitative research: concerns and challenges. In Morse JM (ed) Qualitative nursing research.pp 187-201.Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Mugenda & Mugenda. (1999). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Act Press
N.et al. (2009) .Improving Impact Evaluation Coordination and Use. A Scoping study commissioned by the DFID Evaluation Department on behalf of NONIE (www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3177.pdf). Retrieved June 15, 2011.
Njenga SM, Mwandawiro CS, Muniu E, Mwanje MT, Haji FM, Bockarie MJ: Adult population as potential reservoir of NTD infections in rural villages of Kwale District, Coastal Kenya: implications for preventive chemotherapy interventions policy. Parasit Vectors 2011, 4:175. doi: 110.1186/1756-3305-1184-1175
Novick, L. F., Morrow, C. B., & Mays, G. P. (2007). Public health administration: Principles for population-based management. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Patton, Q. M. (1997). Utilization Focused Evaluation. The New Century Text (3rd Edition).Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Patton, M.Q. (2010). Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 2010.
Pearce, J. & Robinson, R. (2005). Strategic Management: Formulation, implementation, and control. (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Perlino, C. (2006). The public health workforce: Left unchecked, will we be protected. APHA Issue Brief.
Poister, H. (2007). Performance monitoring. Handbook of practical program evaluation (pp. 98-125). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Polit, D.F., Hungler, B.P. (1999) Nursing Research: Principles and Methods (6th edn).Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1999). The trans theoretical approach: Crossing traditional boundaries of change. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones/Irwin.
Ravasi, D., Schultz, M. (2006). Responding to organizational identity threats: Exploring the role of organizational culture. Academy of Management Journal, 49(3), 433–458.
Reidar, D. (2003).The logical frame work: an easy escape, a straightjacket, or a usefully planning tool. Journal of Development in Practice, 3(1): 57 – 70.
Riley RD, Higgins JP, Deeks JJ. (2011) "Interpretation of random effects meta-analyses". British Medical Journal Feb 10;342:d549. doi:10.1136/bmj.d549
Ross, P.H., Ellipse, M.W.,& Freeman, H.E. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-0894-4.
Rossi, Lipsey & Freeman, (2004). "Chapter 6: Eras of the New Frontier and the Great Society, 1961-1969.
Sanderson, C. J., & Gruen, R. (2006). Analytical Models for Decision Making. Understanding Public Health. Open University Press. OCLC 182531015.
Sarah del Tufo (2002). "WHAT is evaluation?” Evaluation Trust. The Evaluation Trust. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
Saunders, M. N. K. (2011). The management researcher as practitioner. Issues from the interface. In C. Cassell & W. J. Lee (Eds.), Challenges and controversies in management research (pp. 243-256). London, England: Taylor and Francis.
Sekaran, U. (2000). Research methods for business. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shadish, W. R. (1998). Need-based evaluation theory: What do you need to know to do good evaluation? Evaluation Practice, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Leviton, L. C. (1991). Foundations of program evaluation: Theories of practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Shao, J. (1998). Convergence rates of the generalized information criterion. on-parametric Statistics, 9, 217-225.
Shiller R. (2003), “From Efficient Markets Theory to Behavioral Finance”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 17, n. 1.
Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B., Zechmeister, J.S. (2000). Research methods in psychology. Fifth edition. McGraw-Hill.
Scriven, M. (1999). The nature of evaluation part ii: training. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(12). Retrieved November7, 2014fromhttp://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=12.
Sofia, S., & Emily, P.(2001). Advocacy Tools and Guidelines: Promoting Policy Change (Atlanta: CARE, 2001) .
Sprechman, S., & Pelton, E(2001). Advocacy Tools and Guidelines: Promoting Policy Change (Atlanta: CARE, 2001).
Staff (2011). "Evaluation Purpose". designshop – lessons in effective teaching. Learning Technologies at Virginia Tech. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
Stewardson, A.J., Allegranzi, B., Perneger, T.V., Attar, H., Pittet, D.(2013). Testing the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework for usability and reliability. J Hosp Infect 2013; 83:30.
Stewart ., D. W., Shamdasani., P. M.(1990).Focus groups. Theory and practice.London: Sage Publications.
Stufflebeam., D. L. (Ed.) (2001). Evaluation models (New Directions for Evaluation, No.89). SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Thomas, G.( 2009 )How to do your research project. Sage Publications Inc.
Turner, J. R..,& Simister, S..J. (2000). Gower handbook of project management. (3th ed.) Hampshire: Gower.
UNESCO. (2000).The Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. Paris: UNESCO. Derived from the World Education Forum proceedings, Dakar, Senegal, April.
UNDP. (1997) “Who are the Question-makers – A Participatory Evaluation Handbook”, OESP, 1997.
UNDP (1997). Results-Oriented Monitoring and Evaluation. New York. UNDP, OESP.
UNICEF, (2008). State of the World's Children: child survival, UNICEF, New York, December 2007,pp .29-30.
UNICEF, (2010). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Annual Report. New York: UNICEF, 2011
Utah Department of Health.(2000). Utah Child Health Survey. Salt Lake City, Utah; 2001.
Uttal, B. (1983). The corporate culture vultures. Fortune Magazine October 17.
Van, D. A. (1996). The Assessment of Capacity Building. Windhoek, Namibia: UNICEF Namibia.
Vanesa, W., & Gala, D. (2011) Sound Expectations: From Impact Evaluations to Policy Change Center for the Implementation of Public Policies Promoting Equity and Growth (CIPPEC).
Williams, A., Dobson, P. & Walters, M. (1994). Changing Culture: New Organisational Approaches. (2nd ed). Cromwell Press, Wiltshire.
WHO. (2005): Programme Report no. 17 - Seventeenth Programme Report of the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research & Training in Tropical Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.
WHO, (2009) .WHO Disease and injury country estimates. Retrieved Nov 11, 2009
WHO.(2009). "Public health principles and neurological disorders. In: Neurological Disorders: Public Health Challenges. Geneva; 2006 - http://www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/neurodiso/en/index.html
WHO. (2012) .Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: a roadmap for implementation. In WHO/HTM/NTD/20121. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
Woodhill, J. 2006. “M&E as Learning: Rethinking the Dominant Paradigm.” In
Monitoring and Evaluation of Soil Conservation and Watershed Development Projects, edited by J. de Graaff, J. Cameron, S. Sombatpanit, C. Pieri, and J. Woodhill.103-122. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation. Enfield, New Hampshire, USA: Science Publishers.
World Bank (2006) .Disease control priorities in developing countries (2ndedition). New York: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
Zall ,K. J.,& Rist R.(2004) .Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluation system. A handbook for development practitioners. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 2004.
Zechmeister, J. S., Zechmeister, E. B., & Shaughnessy, J. J. (2001). Essentials of research methods in psychology, New York: Mc.
Zhang, Xibao. (2009). Values, Expectations, Ad Hoc Rules, and Culture Emergence in International Cross Cultural Management Contexts. New York: Nova Science Publishers.