Intercultural Adaptation Process and Its Determinants
International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 215-221
Received: Nov. 23, 2019; Published: Dec. 12, 2019
Views 341      Downloads 118
Renata Čuhlová, Czech Research Centre, Zhejiang Financial College, Hangzhou, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
The increasing trend of international mobility has intensified intercultural communication and expanded the requirements expected from international managers. The whole expatriation process represents a costly matter for the engaged companies. Detecting determinants of the intercultural adaptation can significantly minimaze the risk of failure during the foreign assignment. Moreover, the consideration should already be given in the beginning when the selection of eligible candidates for expatriation is done. The research objective of the paper is to investigate the determinants of intercultural adaptation of expatriates with international assignment experience and consequently to understand the complexity of the adaptation process while working abroad. Firstly, theoretical background reviews previous studies on adaptation process and cultural distance, intercultural competences and motivation as important factors. Next, primary data were obtained from Czech expatriates via questionnaire regardless the country of their foreign assignment. Additionally, the final model of intercultural adaptation was developed by applying a systematic thinking approach as an appropriate method emphasizing links and backward dynamics between the elements. The model is based on interaction of six determinants; such as: intercultural competences, language skills, intercultural training, past intercultural experience, motivation and cultural distance; that were identified from primary and secondary research as the most crucial variables. The findings lead to deeper understanding of the processes and help to improve the selection process of suitable candidate for foreign assignment and the intercultural training in order to reach higher level of adjustment.
Cultural Differences, Cultural Distance, Expatriation, Intercultural Communication, International Business
To cite this article
Renata Čuhlová, Intercultural Adaptation Process and Its Determinants, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp. 215-221. doi: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20190706.16
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
J. W. Berry, et al., “Cross-cultural psychology,” 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-521-64617-8.
G. M. Chen, “Theorizing intercultural adaptation from the perspective of boundary game,” in China Media Research, 2013, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-10. ISSN 1556-889X.
G. Cui, “Measuring intercultural effectiveness: An integrative approach,” in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1992, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 311-328. ISSN 0147-1767.
S. Lysgaard, “Adjustment in a foreign society. Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States,” in International Social Sciences Bulletin, 1955, vol. 7, pp. 45–51. ISSN 1012-9537. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1956.tb00372.x.
J. Zhu, C. R. Wanberg, D. A. Harrison, and E. W. Diehn, “Ups and downs of the expatriate experience? Understanding work adjustment trajectories and career outcomes,” in Journal of Applied Psychology, 2016, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 549.
K. Bierwiaczonek, and S. Waldzus, “Socio-cultural factors as antecedents of cross-cultural adaptation in expatriates, international students, and migrants: A review. ” in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2016, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 767-817.
G. Hofstede, J. Hofstede, and M. Minkov, “Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. ” Revised and expanded 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2010. ISBN007166418.
J. Knocke, J., and T. Schuster, “Repatriation of international assignees: Where are we and where do we go from here? A systematic literature review. ” in Journal of Global Mobility, 2016, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 275-303.
M. Morgensternová, and L. Šulová, “Interkulturní psychologie: rozvoj interkulturní sensitivity,” Praha: Karolinum, 2007. ISBN 9788024613611.
K. F. Gaw, “Reverse culture shock in students returning from overseas,” in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2000, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 83-104. ISSN 0147-1767.
N. J. Adler, and A. Gundersen, “International dimensions of organizational behavior,” 5th ed., Cengage Learning, 2007. ISBN 978-0-324-36074-5.
R. Čuhlová, and M. I. Yar, “ Role of intercultural training in a process of human resource internationalization,” in Acta Academica Karviniensia, 2018, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 15-26.
K. A. Demes, and N. Geeraert, “Measures matter: Scales for adaptation, cultural distance, and acculturation orientation revisited,” in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 91-109.
R. Čuhlová, “Cultural distance of foreign investors in the Czech Republic based on Hofstede´s dimensions,” in Ad Alta: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2016, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 14-17. ISSN 1804-7890.
R. L. Pope, and A. L. Reynolds, “Student affairs core competencies: Integrating multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills,” in Journal of College Student Development, 1997, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 266-277. ISSN 1543-3382.
A. K. Gupta, and V. Govindarajan, “Building an effective global business team,” in MIT Sloan Management Review, 2001, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 63-71. ISSN 1532-9194.
J. Richardson, and S. McKenna, “Leaving and experiencing: why academics expatriate and how they experience expatriation.” in Career Development International, 2002, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 67-78. ISSN1362-0436.
I. Brooks, “Organizational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organization,” Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2006. ISBN 9780273715368.
D. C. Thomas, and M. B. Lazarová, “Expatriate adjustment and performance: a critical review,” in G. Stahl, and I. Bjorkman (eds.), “Handbook of Research In International Human Resource Management,” Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2006, pp. 247-264. ISBN 1845421280.
C. C. Bright, “Investigating the relationship between expatriate adjustment, marital status, and related attributes,” University of Phoenix, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2008, 3364166.
R. Shmueli, S. L. Dolan and J. L. Cerdin, “Emotional intelligence as predictor of cultural adjustment for success in global assignments,” in Career Development International, 2005, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 375-395. ISSN 1362-0436.
S. Shortland, “The purpose of expatriation: why women undertake international assignments,” in Human Resource Management, 2016, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 655-678.
S. Mildeová, et al., “Tvorba manažerských simulátorů: vaše virtuální firma.” Oeconomica, Praha, 2007. ISBN 978-80-245-1286-0.
Z. Molnár, S. Milderová, H. Řezanková, R. Rixí, and J. Kalina, “Pokročilé metody vědecké práce,” 1. ed. Praha: Profess Consulting, 2012. ISBN 978-80-7259-064-3.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186