Service Quality and Student Satisfaction: A Case Study on Private Universities in Bangladesh
With an ever growing assortment of educational options, students seek institutions that will provide for them a unique educational experience that they will remember for a life time. In addition, the present student is a customer seeking an educational program that will prepare him/her for a successful career and gainful employment. Since institutional budgets are developed based upon projected enrolments, it is becoming crucial for private institutions to retain the students they recruit. This situation has created a need for continued research in the area of student satisfaction and student retention. A reduction in student numbers, therefore, leads to a reduction in budgeted funds available to operate, maintain, and grow a private institution. This study attempts to examine the relationship between service quality dimensions and overall service quality (tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, assurance and empathy) and students satisfaction. Furthermore, this study is also examining critical factors in service quality dimensions (tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, assurance and empathy) that contribute most to the satisfaction of the students. This study was conducted using a set of questionnaire to 550 Business students from Private University institutions, Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Among the respondents, male respondents were 411, thus representing 75% of the total population, whereas the female respondents were 139 and thus representing 25% of the total population. All the respondents are undergraduate students. Majority of the Student population were between 18 to 24 years of age group. There is a significant correlation among all the constructs with student satisfaction. Factor 1 is by far the most important, accounting for the largest proportion of the variance (34 per cent), with eigenvalues greater than 3.00 (10.596). This factor includes a group of statements related to environment and facilities of the university, and is labeled here ‘tangibles’.
Service Quality and Student Satisfaction: A Case Study on Private Universities in Bangladesh, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences.
Vol. 1, No. 3,
2013, pp. 128-135.
A. Ijaz, S.M. Irfan, S. Shahbaz, M. Awan, and M. Sabir, "An Empirical Model of Student Satisfaction: Case of Pakistani Public Sector Business Schools," Journal of Quality and Technology Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2011, pp. 91 ‐ 114.
Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Ahmad, Z., Ahmad, Z., Shaukat, M. Z., Usman, A., Wasim-ul- Rehman and Ahmed, N., "Does Service Quality Affect Students’ Performance? Evidence from Institutes of Higher Learning," African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2527-2533.
Albrecht, K., "Total Quality Service," Executive Excellence, July, 1991, pp. 18-19.
Alves, H. and Raposo M., "The Influence of University Image on Students’ Behavior," International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2010, pp. 73-85.
Aly, N. and Akpovi, J., "Total quality management in California public higher education," Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2001, pp. 127-31.
Ana Brochado, "Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education," Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2009, pp. 174-190.
Anderson, E.W., Fornell, C., and Lehmann, D. R., "Customer Satisfaction, Market Share, and Profitability: Findings From Sweden," Journal of Marketing, Vo. 58, July 1994, pp. 53-66.
Arambewela and John Hall, "An empirical model of international student satisfaction," Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2009, pp. 555-569.
Astin, A. W., "What matters in college? Four critical years revisited," San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1993.
Babbar Sunil, "Applying total quality management to educational instruction - A case study from a US public university," Quality Progress, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1995, pp. 87-91
Bailey, B. L., Bauman, C., and Lata, K. A., "Student retention and satisfaction: The evolution of a predictive model," (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 424797), 1998.
Bhattacharya, C. B., Rao, H., and Glynn, M. A., "Understanding the bond of Identification," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, 1995, pp. 46-57.
Beerli, A., Martin, D.J. and Quintana, A., "A model of customer loyalty in the retail banking market," European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2002, pp. 253-275.
Carman, J. M., "Consumer perception of service quality: an assessment of the servqual dimensions," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 66, Spring, 1990, pp. 35-55.
DeShields, O., Kara, A., and Kaynak, E., "Determinants of business student satisfaction and retention in higher education: applying Herzberg’s two-factor theory," International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 19, No.2, 2005, pp.128-39.
DiDomenico, E., and Bonnici, J., "Assessing service quality within the educational environment," Education, Vol. 116, Issue 3, 1996, pp. 353.
Elliott, K. M. and Healy, M. A., "Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment and retention," Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1-11.
Elliott, K. M. and Shin, D., "Student satisfaction: an alternative approach to assessing this important concept," Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2002, pp. 197-209.
Fitzgerald, T., "Understanding the Differences Between Services and Products to Exploit Your Competitive Advantage," Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998, pp. 25-30.
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan and De Jager, Johan., "Measuring Service Quality in South Africa Higher Education: Developing a Multidimensional Scale," Global Business and Technology Association (GBATA), United States. 2008.
Gold, E., "Customer Service: A Key Unifying Force for Today’s Campus. Netresults, National Association of Student Personnel Administration," 2001, http://www.naspa.org/netresults (Accessed 8 January 2010).
Grönroos, Christian, "A Service Quality Model and Its Marketing Implications," European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1984, pp. 36-45.
Gruber, T., Fub, S., Voss, R., and Glaser-Zikuda, M., "Examining Student Satisfaction with Higher Education Services Using a New Measurement Tool," International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2010, pp. 105-123.
Hair, J. R., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C., "Multivariate Data Analysis," 8th ed., Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2006.
Harvey, L., Plimmer, L., Moon, S. and Geall, V., "Student Satisfaction Manual (Buckingham, Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press)," 1997.
Helgesen, Ø., and Nesset, E., "What Accounts for Students’ Loyalty? Some Field Study Evidence," International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2007, pp. 126-143.
Hill, F., "Managing service quality in higher education: the role of the student as primary consumer," Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1995, pp. 10–21.
Ilias, A., Hasan, H. F. A., Rahman, R. A., and Yasoa, M. R., "Student Satisfaction and Service Quality: Any Differences in Demographic Factors?," International Business Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2008, pp. 131-143.
Kanji G. K., and A. Tambi, A. M., "Total quality management and higher education in Malaysia," Total Quality Management, Vol. 9, No. 4/5, 1998, pp.130–132.
Kanji, G.K., Malek, A. and Tambi, A., "Total quality management in UK higher education institution," Total Quality Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1999, pp. 129-53.
Kotler, P. and Clarke, R. N., "Marketing For Health Care Organizations," Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.
Lassar, W. M., Manolis, C., and Winsor, R. D., "Service quality perspectives and satisfaction in private banking," Journal of Service Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2000, pp. 244-271.
Malik, M.E., Danish, R., and Usman, A., "Impact of Job Climate and Extrinsic Rewards on Job Satisfaction of Banking Executives: a Case of Pakistan," Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 1, No. 12, 2010, pp. 125-139.
Montano, C. and Utter, G., "Total Quality Management in Higher Education," Quality Progress, August, 1999, pp. 52-59.
Nunnally, J. C., "Psychometric Theory," 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1978.
Nunnally, J. C., and Bernstein, I. H., "Psychometric Theory," 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Oldfield, B. and Baron, S., "Student Perceptions of Service Quality in a UK University Business and Management Faculty," Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 8, 2000, pp. 85-95.
Oliver, R. L. and DeSarbo, W. S., "Processing of the satisfaction response in consumption: a suggested framework and research proposition," Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, Vol. 2, 1989, pp. 1-16.
O’Neill, M. and Palmer, A., "Importance-performance analysis: a useful tool for directing continuous quality improvement in higher education," Journal of Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 12, No.1, 2004, pp. 39-52.
Palacio, A. B., Meneses, G. D. and Perez, P. J. P., "The configuration of the university image and its relationship with the satisfaction of students," Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2002, pp. 486-505.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry, L. L., "Five imperatives for improving service quality," Sloan Management Review, 1990, pp. 29-38.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. and Berry, L. L., "SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64, Spring, 1988, pp. 12-40.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. and Berry, L. L., "A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, Autumn, 1985, pp. 41-50.
Petruzzellis Luca, Angela Maria D’Uggento and Salvatore Romanazzi, "Student satisfaction and quality of service in Italian universities," Managing Service Quality, Vol. 16 No. 4, 2006, pp. 349-364.
Prabha Ramseook-Munhurrun, Perunjodi Naidoo and Pushpa Nundlall, "A proposed model for measuring service quality in secondary education," International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010, pp. 335-351.
Reeves, C.A. and Bednar, D., "Defining quality: alternatives and implications," Academy of Management Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1994, pp. 419-45.
Rowley, J. E., "Customer compatibility management: an alternative perspective on student-to-student support in higher education," International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1996, pp. 15-20.
Sapri, M., Kaka, A. and Finch, E., "Factors that Influence Student’s Level of Satisfaction with Regards to Higher Educational Facilities Services," Malaysian Journal of Real Estate, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2009, pp. 34-51.
Swift, J., "Using TQM to identify Education Improvements in the College of Education at the University of Miami," Computers and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 1/2, 1996, pp. 3-16.
Teo, C. L., "Realities of private institution," New Strait Time, 4, 2001.
Zammuto, R. F., Keaveney, S. M. and O’connor, E. J., "Rethinking student services: assessing and improving service quality," Journal of Marketing in Higher Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1996, pp. 45-69.
Zeithaml. V. A., "Service Quality, Profitability, and the Economic Worth of Customers: What We Know and what We Need to Learn," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2000, pp. 67-85.
Zikmund, W.G., "Essentials of Marketing Research," The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Hinsdale, IL, 1998.